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Polish is a language of the Lechiticsubgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, Romania, Slovakia. Polish contains a great number of words borrowed from Latin, Czech, German, Belarusian, and Ukrainian and also some words from Italian, French, and English. Along with the other West Slavic languages, it has a fixed stress accent.


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The modern literary language, written in the Roman (Latin) alphabet, dates from the 16th century and was originally based on the dialects of the area around Poznań, in western Poland. The first written Polish consists of a list of names in the Papal Bull issued in 1136 by Pope Innocent II to the archbishop of Gniezno; the oldest recorded sentence is a gloss translating a quotation in a document from 1270. Extant manuscripts containing any appreciable amount of connected Polish text date back no earlier than the 14th century.



Greater Polish, spoken in the west

Lesser Polish, spoken in the south and southeast

Masovian, spoken throughout the central and eastern parts of the country

Kashubian (Cassubian), often classified as a Polish dialect, is, historically, a separate language.


Regulatory body

Polish Language Council


Number of speakers

It has about 44,000,000 speakers in the world.


First Publication

The first complete sentence in modern Polish spelling dates back to 1270 and was recorded in the Book of Henrykow, which described the everyday life at that time.



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