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Al-Kitaabah means that Allah wrote everything about His creation; their livelihood, provision, life-spans, deeds, etc. All this is written in Umm al-Kitaab (lit. Mother of all books, also known as al-Lauhul Mahfoudh (the Preserved Tablet)


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  • “Do you not know, that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and in the earth? Verily! It is all in the Book. Verily! That is easy for Allah.”  [Soorah al-Hajj (22): 70 ]
  • The Qur'aan itself is written in al-Lauh al-Mahfoudh, as Allah says: “Indeed this Qur'aan is in Ummul Kitaab before Us, Exalted and full of Wisdom.” [Soorah az-Zukhruh (43):3]
  • And “Nay! This is a Glorious Qur'aan, (inscribed) in al-Lauh al-Mahfoudh(the Preserved Tablet).”  [Soorah al-Buruj (85): 22]
  • Even the minutest detail has been recorded in the Preserved Tablet, as Allah says: “And nothing is hidden from your Rubb (so much as) the weight of an atom on the earth or in the heaven; whatever is less or greater than that except that it is (written) in a Clear Record.” [Soorah Yunus (10): 61]



Everything was written fifty thousand years before the creation of the heaven and earth, as the Messenger of Allah (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said: “Allah had written the ordained measures (and their due proportions) of the creation, fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth as His Arsh (Throne) was on water.” Sahih Muslim vol.4, no.6416 This Hadeeth indicates that the Arsh of Allah was created before the writing in the clear Book took place.


All our deeds have been pre-recorded in the Preserved Tablet. Whatever the Pen wrote is certainly to be executed. The Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said to Abu Hurairah, “The Pen has turned dry after writing what you are going to confront.”  [Saheeh al-Bukhari vol.4, p.9, no.13]


Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar commented: “This means that the pen has turned dry after writing the predestined matters. Execution of all matters is in accordance with what the Pen wrote in the Preserved Tablet.”  [Fath al-Bari, vol.9, p.119]


Allah ordered al-Qalam (the pen) to write all the records till the Day is established, of all pre-ordained measures: Narrated Abee Hafsaa: Ubadah Ibn as-Samit said to his son - O son! You shall not get the true sense of Eeman (faith) until you acknowledge that what has befallen you was not to escape you (or miss you), and what missed you was not to befall you; I heard the Prophet saying: “(As soon as Allah created the Pen, He commanded it saying, ‘Write’. It said, ‘What should I write, my Rabb (Lord)?’. Allah said, ‘Write the record of all preordained matter until the commencement of the Hour’.” Furthermore, Ubadah Ibn as-Samit said, “O my son! I have heard Allah’s Messenger saying, ‘He who dies believing in other than this is not from me (i.e. is not on the Prophet’s way of belief).” Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmed bin Hambal


Other Writings of Taqdeer

There are evidences from the Qur'aan and Sunnah, that from the writing of Taqdeer that Allah commanded on al-Laauh al-Mahfoudh (The Preserved Tablet) are brought by angels with the command of Allah. Among them are:


1.  The Taqdeer al-Umuri (Covering the person’s life span)

The Person’s livelihood, life-term, deeds and his status in the Hereafter (wretched or blessed) are written while in the mother’s womb at an early stage of his development. This is confirmed in the Hadeeth related by Abdullah bin Masood who said, that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said: “The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of a Nutfah after which it turns into a Alaqa for an equal period. Then it becomes a Mudhqah for a similar period and then Allah sends an angel with four words recording: the person’s provision, his life term, his deeds, or whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter).” Sahih al-Bukhari vol.8, p.387, no.593 and Sahih Muslim vol.4, p.1391, no.6390


2.  The Annual Taqdeer

This Taqdeer takes place on the night of decree (Lailat al-Qadr), Allah, the Exalted says: “Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainment” [Soorah ad-Dukhaan (44): 4]


Also Ibn Abbas said: “On the night of Decree, everything that occurs over the whole (coming) year from the matters of death, births, provisions, and the rain would be recorded from the Record of the Mother of the Book; it would even be said that such and such a person would perform Hajj.” [2]


3.  The Daily Taqdeer

It directs the pre-ordained Taqdeer according to its previously appointed terms and on its specific times. Allah says: “Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth ask of Him (for their needs). Everyday He has a matter to bring forth.” [Soorah ar-Rehman (55): 29]


The Prophet said explaining the verse: “Everyday Allah has a matter to bring forth, that He may forgive a sin for someone, relief the hardship of someone, lift (in honor) some and lower (in disgrace) others.” Sunan Ibn Majah and Abee ‘Aasim in “as-Sunnah” no.301 and authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah no.202


Scholars view

Sheikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah explained that: “Provisions and life terms are of two kinds:


The unchanged record written in Ummul Kitaab. That made known to the angels by Allah (these records being subject to increase or decrease). This is why Allah says,“Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the Preserbved Tablet).”  [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 39]


In the angel’s books, both the life span and provisions increase and decrease due to specific reasons. Thus, Allah commands the angel to write the provision and life span of one of His slaves. If the slave joins the tie of kinship, Allah commands the angel to increase the slave’s sustenance and life term [3]  by specific increments. The angel does not know the actual outcome of extension in the life term, or that related to the increase in provisions. He (Allah) knows the out come (i.e. the pre-appointed term which is not to be prolonged nor delayed.” [al-Fatawa, vol.8, p.517 and p.540]


Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: “For example, to say to the angel that the age of such and such person is hundred years if he joins the tie of his kinship, and sixty years if he severs it. In the Foreknowledge of Allah it is known whether he will join or sever the tie of kinship; and whatever is in Allah’s Knowledge is not subject to extension or delay. However, the angels knowledge is the one subject to the increase or decrease. This is what is referred to in Allah’s saying: “Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the Preserbved Tablet).” [Soorah Ar-Ra'd (13): 39]


Therefore the blotting and confirming is relevant to the knowledge of the angels, but what is recorded in Ummul Kitaab is relevant to Allah’s Knowledge, where there is absolutely no blotting…” [Fath ul-Bari, vol.10, p.430]




[2] This explanation of Ibn Abbas is mentioned in as-Syouti’s Ad-Durr al-Manthour [6/25] and al-Shawkani’s Fathul-Qadeer [4/572]

[3] Because the slave obeyed Allah in keeping the tie to his kinship, his life will be extended to a pre-ordained term, otherwise if he severs his tie with his kinship, he would not reach such an age. In all cases it is written in Ummul-Kitaab whether he will keep or sever his tie. The same holds true regarding his sustenance. [See. At-Tahawiyyah, p.143]


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