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Ahl Al Bayt

Ahl Al Bayt or Ahle Bait basically refers to the family of the Prophet .

 

Table of Contents

Qur’an

And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom. Indeed, Allah is ever Subtle and Acquainted [with all things]. Surah Al Ahzab 33:34

 

Who are Ahl Al Bayt?

There are several views among the scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) concerning the definition of Ahl al-Bayt.

 

Some said that the members of the Prophet’s family are his wives, his children, Banu Haashim, Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib and their freed slaves. Some said that his wives were not part of the Ahl al-Bayt. Some said that the Ahl al-Bayt are Quraysh; some said that the family of Muhammad are the pious among his ummah; and some said that they are all of the ummah of Muhammad .

 

With regard to the wives of the Prophet , the most correct view is that they are included among the members of the family of the Prophet , because Allaah says, after commanding the wives of the Prophet to observe hijaab (interpretation of the meaning):  “Allaah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification” Surah al-Ahzaab 33:33

 

 And the angels said to Saarah the wife of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) (interpretation of the meaning): “The Mercy of Allaah and His Blessings be on you, O the family [of Ibraaheem (Abraham)]” Surah Al Hood 11:73

 

And because Allaah excluded the wife of Loot from the family of Loot (peace be upon him) with regard to survival, when He said (interpretation of the meaning): “(All) except the family of Loot. Them all we are surely, going to save (from destruction). Except his wife…” Surah al-Hijr  15:59-60. This indicates that the wife is part of the family.

 

 With regard to the family of al-Muttalib, it was stated in a report from Imaam  Ahmad that they are among them [among the Ahl al-Bayt]. This is also the view of Imaam al-Shaafa'i. Imaam Abu Haneefah and Imaam Maalik were of the view that the family of Muttalib are not included in the family of the Prophet ; there is also a report to this effect from Ahmad. The correct view is that Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib are among the Ahl al-Bayt. The evidence for that is the report narrated from Jubayr ibn Mut’im (R) who said: “ ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan and I went to the Messenger of Allaah () and said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, you have given to Banu’l-Muttalib and not to us, but we and they are the same in status with regard to you.’ The Messenger of Allaah () said: ‘Banu’l-Muttalib and Banu Haashim are the same thing.’” Sahih al-Bukhaari, no. 2907; al-Nasaa’i, 4067; and others

 

Included among the Ahl al-Bayt are Banu Haashim ibn ‘Abd Manaaf, who are the family of ‘Ali, the family of ‘Abbaas, the family of Ja’far, the family of ‘Aqeel and the family of al-Haarith ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. This was stated in the report narrated by Imaam Ahmad from Zayd ibn Arqam (R), in which he said: “The Messenger of Allaah () stood up and addressed us one day at a well called Khum, between Makkah and Madeenah. He praised Allaah and exhorted and reminded us. Then he said: ‘O people, I am a human being; soon the messenger of my Lord [i.e., the Angel of death] will come to me and I will answer his call. I am leaving among you two important things: the first of which is the Book of Allaah, in which there is guidance and light, so adhere to it and follow it’ – and he urged us to adhere to the Book of Allaah, then he said: ‘And the people of my household (ahl bayti).

 

I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household.’” Husayn said to him [Zayd], “Who are the people of his household, O Zayd? Are not his wives among the people of his household?” Zayd said: “His wives are among the people of his household, but the people of his household are those who are forbidden to receive sadaqah (charity) after his death.” He (Husayn) said: “Who are they?” He said: “They are the family of ‘Ali, the family of ‘Aqeel, the family of Ja’far and the family of ‘Abbaas.” Husayn said: “Are all of these forbidden to receive sadaqah?” Zayd said, “Yes.” Narrated by Ahmad, no. 18464

 

With regard to the freed slaves, it was narrated that Mihraan the freed slave of the Prophet () said: the Messenger of Allaah () said; “We are the family of Muhammad: the sadaqah is not permissible for us, and the freed slave of a people is one of them.” Musnad Ahmad15152

 

 So the family of the Prophet () are: his wives, his children, and Banu Haashim, Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib and their freed slaves. [1]

 

Virtues

Allaah has bestowed upon the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet numerous virtues. Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah are unanimously agreed that it is obligatory to love them and respect their rights. 

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Similarly the family of the Messenger of Allaah have rights which must be paid attention to. Allaah has allocated to them a share of the khums and fay’, and He has enjoined that blessings be sent upon them along with the Messenger of Allaah , who said to us: “Say: ‘Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala aali Muhammadin kamaa salayta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed, wa baarik ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala aali Muhammadin kamaa baarakta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem innaka Hameedun Majeed (O Allaah, send prayer upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent prayers upon the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent blessings upon the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory)’”.Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (3/407).

 

And he also said:  Similarly, with regard to the family of the Messenger of Allaah (Ahl al-Bayt), it is obligatory to love them, be loyal to them and respect their rights. Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (28/491)

 

The virtues of the family of the Prophet :

 

  1. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allaah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner. And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, And perform As‑Salaah (Iqaamat‑as-Salaah), and give Zakaah and obey Allaah and His Messenger. Allaah wishes only to remove Ar‑Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet ), and to purify you with a thorough purification” Al-Ahzaab 33:32, 33

 

This does not apply only to the Prophet’s wives (may Allaah be pleased with them); rather it is narrated in the saheeh Sunnah that it also includes others. It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: The Prophet went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of black camel hair. Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali came and he enfolded him in the cloak, then al-Husayn came and he enfolded him in it, then Faatimah came and he enfolded her in it, then ‘Ali came and he enfolded him in it, then he said: “Allaah wishes only to remove Ar‑Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet ), and to purify you with a thorough purification” Surah al-Ahzaab 33:33Sahih Muslim 2424

 

  1. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):“The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers’) mothers (as regards respect and marriage)” Surah al-Ahzaab 33:6

 

  1. It was narrated that Waasilah ibn al-Asqa’ said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah say:“Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, chose Kinaanah from among the children of Ismaa’eel (peace be upon him), and He chose Quraysh from among Kinaanah, and He chose Banu Haashim from among Quraysh, and He chose me from among Banu Haashim.”  Sahih Muslim 2276

 

  1. It was narrated that Zayd ibn Arqam said: The Messenger of Allaah stood and addressed us at a watering place called Khumm, between Makkah and Madeenah. He praised and glorified Allaah, and he exhorted and reminded us, then he said: “O people, I am only human, and soon the messenger of my Lord will come to me and I will respond. I am leaving among you two weighty things, the first of which is the Book of Allaah in which is guidance and light. Follow the Book of Allaah and hold fast to it.” And he encouraged us to adhere to the Book of Allaah, then he said: “And the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household.” Sahih Muslim (2408).

 

The companions of the Prophet paid attention to this commandment; foremost among them were Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with them).

 

Al-Bukhaari (3508) and Muslim (1759) narrated that Abu Bakr (R) said to ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him): “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, kinship with the Messenger of Allaah is dearer to me than kinship with my own people.”

 

Al-Bukhaari also narrated in his Saheeh (3509) that Abu Bakr (R) said: “Pay attention to the rights of the household of Muhammad ().”

 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:The words “Pay attention to the rights of the household of Muhammad ()” are addressed to the people, enjoining them to fulfil the rights of Ahl al-Bayt. Fath al-Baari 7/79

 

With regard to the respect of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab for the relatives of the Prophet (), that is apparent from many things, such as his preferring to put the ahead of himself or any other people with regard to allocating shares from bayt al-maal.

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Moreover, when ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (R) set up the registry of stipends, he wrote  down people’s names according to their lineage, so he started with those who were closest in lineage to the Messenger of Allaah (), When he had finished listing the Arabs, he listed the non-Arabs. This is how the registry was at the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and all the caliphs of the Umayyad and ‘Abbaasid dynasties, until things changed after that. Iqtida’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, p. 159, 160

 

There is no intercession specifically for the family of the Prophet , rather that is something that may be granted to all those among the righteous, the martyrs and the scholars with whose intercession Allaah is pleased, whether they are among Ahl al-Bayt or are from among the ordinary people.

 

Intercession for those who committed sin will not be granted only to the Prophet (), rather the Prophets, the martyrs, the scholars, the righteous and the angels will also join in that. A man’s righteous deeds may also intercede for him. But the Prophet () will have the greatest share of intercession. [2]

 

Zakat to Ahl Bayt

It is not permissible to give zakaah to Ahl al-Bayt, because of the evidence narrated forbidding that to them, including the report narrated by Imaam Muslim (may Allaah have mercy on him) from ‘Abd al-Muttalib ibn Rabee’ah ibn al-Haarith (R) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah () said: ‘Zakaah should not be given to the family of Muhammad because it is from the dirt of the people.’” Sahih Muslim, al-Zakaah, 1784.

 

An-Nawawi said concerning the phrase “Zakaah should not be given to the family of Muhammad”, this indicates that it is forbidden whether that is because of their involvement in the collection and distribution of zakaah or because of their poverty and need, or for any of the other eight reasons. This is the correct view according to our companions.

 

“because it is from the dirt of the people” points towards the reason for the prohibition… that is in order to honour them and demonstrate that they are above receiving any dirt. The meaning of the phrase “the dirt of the people” is because it is to purify their wealth and their souls, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “  Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it” Surah al-Tawbah 9:103

 

So it is like washing away something dirty.

 

This ruling – that zakaah is forbidden for the Ahl al-Bayt – is because they have other sources from which money may be given to them if they are in need of it, such as the khums or one-fifth of war booty, people’s gifts, and others.

 

If these sources are no longer available to them, and some of them are in need of money and we cannot find anything other than the zakaah money, then it is permissible, indeed obligatory, to give zakaah to them, and they are more entitled to it than others, because of the Prophet’s advice to take care of them. This was the view of some of the salaf and was regarded as the more correct view by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), and Shaykh Muhammad al-Saalih ibn ‘Uthaymeen agreed with him.

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: If Bani Haashim are deprived of one-fifth of the khums, it is permissible for them to receive zakaah. This is the view of al-Qaadi Ya’qoob and others among our companions. It is also the view of Abu Yoosuf and al-Istakhri among the Shaafa’is, because this is a case of need and necessity. Al-Fataawa al-Kubra, 5/374

 

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If they are deprived or there is no khums as is the case nowadays, then they may be given zakaah funds to meet their needs if they are poor and they have no work. This is the view of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah and it is the correct view. Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 6/257 [3]

 

Are the Ahl Al Bayt Infallible?

There are some people who claim that the household of the Prophet  was infallible, drawing on as evidence the Quranic ayaths in which Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {Allaah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet's] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.} Surah Al Ahzab 33:33

 

Shaykh Al-Islam, ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him stated that this ayath is similar to the verses in which Allaah The Almighty Says (what means):

 

• He has not laid upon you any hardship in religion. Surah Al Hajj 22:78

 

• Allaah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship. Surah Al Baqarah 2:185

 

• {Allaah wants to make clear to you [the lawful from the unlawful] and guide you to the [good] practices of those before you and to accept your repentance. And Allaah is Knowing and Wise. Allaah wants to accept your repentance, but those who follow [their] passions want you to digress [into] a great deviation.} Surah Al Nisa 4:26-27

 

All of these verses express the will of Allaah, that is, He loves and is pleased with such things if you act accordingly. He added that when the verse of Chapter Al-Ahzaab was revealed: Surah Al Ahzab 33:33 the Prophet  gathered his household and supplicated to Allaah, saying: "O Allaah, these are my household! Save them from the impurity of sins and purify them completely."

 

Thus he asked Allaah The Almighty to purify them from their sins. Indeed, the Prophet  would not have done this if the fact had already occurred.

 

Ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him also argued that assuming that the Quran stresses their purity, it does not mean that they were infallible. Indeed the supplication indicates their purity, but not that they were infallible.[4]

 

See Also: Family of Prophet Muhammad; Umm ul Momineen; Sahaba in Islam; Darood

 

References    

 

[1]https://islamqa.info/en/10055

 

[2] https://islamqa.info/en/121948

 

[3] https://islamqa.info/en/21981

 

[4]http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=12125

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