Questions and Answers
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Islam is not just uttering the Shahaadatayn only, rather it is essential to fulfil the conditions of this twin declaration of faith so that the one who utters them will truly be a Muslim. The pillars of Islam are believing, uttering and acting.
It was narrated that Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit said: The Messenger of Allaah(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever says ‘I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone [with no partner or associate] and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that ‘Eesa is the slave of Allaah, the son of His maidservant, a Word which He bestowed upon Maryam and a Spirit created by Him, and that Paradise is true and that Hell is true, Allaah will admit him through whichever of the eight gates of Paradise he wants.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3252) and Muslim (28).
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The words “Whoever says ‘I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone” mean, the one who speaks these words, knowing what they mean and acting upon them inwardly and outwardly, because with regard to the Shahaadatayn it is essential that one know and be certain and act upon them as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “So know (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) that Laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah)” [Muhammad 47:19].
And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly (i.e. believed in the Oneness of Allaah, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allaah)” [al-Zukhruf 43:86]. As for uttering the words without knowing the meaning or believing with certainty or acting upon them by disavowing shirk and being sincere in word and deed, and saying in one's heart and on one's lips and acting in one’s heart and with one's outward faculties, that is of no benefit, according to scholarly consensus.
Al-Qurtubi said in al-Mufhim ‘ala Saheeh Muslim: Chapter: it is not sufficient merely to speak the Shahaadatayn, rather it is essential to believe it with certainty in one’s heart. This draws attention to the flawed argument of the extreme Murji’ah who say that merely uttering the Shahaadatayn is sufficient to make one a believer. The ahaadeeth on this subject indicate that this is wrong; rather it is a view that is well known to be wrong according to sharee’ah, because it implies a justification of hypocrisy, and judging hypocrites as true believers, which is completely false. End quote.
This hadeeth also indicates this, in the words “whoever bears witness” because bearing witness can only be valid if it is based on knowledge, certainty, sincerity and honesty. Fath al-Baari (p. 36).
There are seven conditions of bearing witness that there is no god but Allaah, and it does not benefit the one who says it unless he fulfils all of them. They are, in brief:
The conditions of bearing witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah are the same as the conditions of bearing witness that there is no god but Allaah, which have been mentioned with evidence in the answers to questions no. 9104 and 12295.
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah
Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.
You have asked – may Allaah bless you – about an important matter, which is easy for the one for whom Allaah makes it easy. We ask Allaah to make it easy for us and for our Muslim brothers to attain all that is good.
It should be noted that achieving Tawheed or true belief in the Oneness of Allaah can only be done by testifying truly that there is no god but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. Achieving this is of two degrees, one that is obligatory and one that is mustahabb.
The obligatory degree is achieved by means of three things:
The mustahabb degree is that in which people may vary greatly, and it means not having anything in the heart of attachment to anything or anyone other than Allaah, so the heart is focused entirely on Allaah and pays no attention to anything or anyone else; he speaks only for the sake of Allaah and his deeds and actions are all for Allaah and all his thoughts are focused Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted. Some scholars described this degree as: giving up something that is permissible so as to avoid something that is forbidden; that includes actions of the heart, tongue and physical faculties.
In order to achieve these two degrees, certain things are essential:
The more a person achieves these things, the stronger will be his Tawheed and the greater will be his reward.
Our Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has explained to us that the one who attains the highest level of Tawheed is the one who is promised that he will be with the seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without being brought to account – we ask Allaah of His bounty.
In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (5705) and Saheeh Muslim (220) it is narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The nations were shown to me and I saw a Prophet with a group of men, a Prophet with one or two men, and a Prophet with no one with him. Then a huge crowd was shown to me, and I thought that they were my ummah, but it was said to me, ‘This is Moosa and his people. But look at the horizon.’ I looked, and there was a huge crowd. Then it was said to me: ‘Look at the other horizon,’ and there was (another) huge crowd. It was said to me: ‘This is your ummah, and among them are seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without being called to account or punished.’”
Then he got up and went into his house, and the people started discussing those who would enter Paradise without being called to account or being punished. Some of them said: Perhaps they are the ones who accompanied the Messenger of Allaah (S). Some said: Perhaps they are those who were born in Islam and did not associate anything with Allaah. And they mentioned several ideas. Then the Messenger of Allaah (S) came out and said: “What are you discussing?” They told him, and he said: “They are the ones who did not perform ruqyah or ask others to do so, and did not believe in omens, and did not use cautery, and they put their trust in their Lord.” ‘Ukkaashah ibn Mihsan stood up and said: Pray to Allaah to make me one of them. He said: “You will be one of them.” Another man stood up and said: Pray to Allaah to make me one of them. He said: “ ‘Ukkaashah has beaten you to it.”
The phrase “did not perform ruqyah or ask others to do so” means that they did not ask others to perform ruqyah for them. Although asking someone to perform ruqyah is permissible, it is contrary to that which is better.
The phrase “and did not believe in omens” means that they did not believe in omens based on birds or anything else about which people are superstitious and may give up something that they had decided to do because of these superstitions. Superstition is haraam and is a form of minor shirk.
The phrase “and did not use cautery” means that they did not cauterize with fire to treat sickness, even if it is proven to be of benefit, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) disliked it, and because no one can punish with fire but the Lord of the fire.
The common thread in these three characteristics is that they “put their trust in their Lord”, i.e., they attained the highest degree of trust (tawakkul) and they did not pay the slightest attention to the means, and they did not depend on them, rather they depended on their Lord alone, may He be glorified.
Tawakkul (trust) is the summary of faith, as Sa’eed ibn Habeeb said, indeed it is the ultimate aim as Wahb ibn Munabbih (may Allaah have mercy on him) said.
In question no. 4203 you will find further discussion of this hadeeth, so please read it. And Allaah knows best and is most Wise.
Note: Achieving true Tawheed or belief in the Oneness of Allaah cannot be achieved by mere wishing or pretending, or by empty claims that have no real essence, rather it is achieved by means of firm belief that is rooted in the heart, by achieving true ihsaan that is confirmed by a good attitude and righteous deeds. The Muslim must hasten to make the best of every moment of his life and hasten to do good deeds and acts of worship; he should ignore the hardship and enjoy the pain, for that which is with Allaah is precious, for that which is with Allaah is Paradise.
See: al-Qawl al-Sadeed ‘ala Maqaasid Kitaab al-Tawheed by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him), p. 20-23.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Forecasting the weather does not come under the heading of astrology or claiming to have knowledge of the unseen, rather it is based on physical evidence and experience, and study of the natural laws established by Allaah. The same applies to knowing the times of solar and lunar eclipses, or when there are likely to be strong winds and rainfall.
It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah: The time of solar and lunar eclipses may be known from calculating the movements of heavenly bodies, from which it may also be known whether the eclipse will be total or partial. There is nothing strange about that, because this is not a matter of the unseen for everyone, rather it is only “unseen” for those who have no knowledge of astronomy and it is not “unseen” for those who have knowledge of this science. That does not mean that solar and lunar eclipses are not among the signs of Allaah with which He instils fear in His slaves so as to bring them back to their Lord and to obedience to Him.
It also says:
Forecasting the weather and predicting strong winds and storms or saying where clouds are expected to form or where rain is likely to fall is based on knowledge of the natural laws of Allaah. One who has experience of these laws may say what he expects to happen, without certain knowledge, on the basis of scientific theories or common experience, so he expects that and predicts it on the basis of likelihood, not certain knowledge, and he gets it right sometimes and gets it wrong sometimes. End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The one who speaks of that which may be worked out by calculations is not a fortune-teller at all, because there is no element of fortune-telling in that which may be worked out by calculations. If a person predicts a solar or lunar eclipse, this is not fortune-telling because it is worked out by calculations. If he says that the sun will set at a 20-degree angle at such and such a time, this is not knowledge of the unseen, because it is something that may be worked out by calculations, and predicting something that can be worked out by calculation, even if it is in the future, is not regarded as being knowledge of the unseen, or fortune-telling.
Is twenty-four hour weather reporting such as we have now fortune-telling?
The answer is no, because it is also based on scientific data which is describing climatic conditions, because climatic conditions have to do with precise measurements that are known to them. Thus they may predict that certain conditions are likely to produce rain or not. That is like the primitive predication that we make when we see clouds forming, and thunder and lightning and thick clouds, and we say: “It is going to rain soon.”
What matters is that what points to physical phenomena is not knowledge of the unseen, even if some of the common folk think that these things are matters of the unseen and say that believing in them is like believing in fortune-telling.
End quote from al-Qawl al-Mufeed Sharh Kitaab al-Tawheed.
See al-Fataawa al-Kubra by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (4/424) with regard to the knowledge of astronomers about the times of solar and lunar eclipses, the beginning of spring and winter, and other matters that may be known by means of calculations and are not matters of the unseen.
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
We must understand the principle which says that there is nothing wrong with using new terminology. This principle is well-known among the fuqaha’ and scholars of usool. Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
There is nothing wrong with new concepts and new words, unless there is something bad about them. Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 3/306
From early times the scholars have categorized the rulings of sharee’ah. This has only been done to make it easier to understand the texts and rulings of sharee’ah, especially as time goes by and knowledge of Arabic language becomes weaker and the language gets mixed with foreign languages.
The scholars thought it wise to set out principles, issues and categories to make it easier to understand. There is nothing wrong with this, in fact it is a good thing because it makes knowledge more accessible to the Muslims. Al-Shaafa’i set out the principles of fiqh and his categorization was well-received and was followed by the scholars of usool who wrote commentaries on what he said and added to it. This was done in all branches of Islamic knowledge such as tajweed (recitation of Qur’aan), Qur’aan and others, including Tawheed.
With regard to what the questioner mentions, that Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyah] divided Tawheed into two categories and Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem divided it into four, as did Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, there is nothing wrong with that. We will explain this to you.
Some of the scholars said that Tawheed can be divided into two categories:
Tawheed al-Ma’rifah wa’l-Ithbaat (Oneness of knowledge and affirmation): which includes believing in the existence of Allaah and in His Lordship and His names and attributes.
Tawheed al-Qasd wa’l-Talab (Oneness of object and aim), which includes believing in the divine nature of Allaah.
With regard to those who divided Tawheed into three categories, they explained the previous categorization in more detail and made it easier to understand. So they said that Tawheed is divided into three categories:
Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of divine Lordship): which includes belief in the existence of Allaah.
Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature) or Tawheed al-‘Ibaadah (Oneness of worship) – which mean the same thing.
Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine names and attributes)
Then some of the scholars added to this categorization and said that Tawheed may be divided into four categories:
As we see, there is nothing wrong with this categorization as long as it does not point to anything false, and there is nothing wrong with the terminology. This categorization is only to make it easier to understand. The more time passes, the less people understand, and the scholars need to make things easier and simpler.
To sum up, there is nothing wrong with what the questioner mentioned, because dividing Tawheed into two categories includes everything that is explained in detail by the others. Those who divided it into three or four categories explained in detail that which was mentioned in concise fashion by those who divided it into two.
But all are agreed that Tawheed includes all the things that they mentioned.
There is nothing wrong with this categorization and this use of terminology, on condition that it does not lead to any problems, such as leaving out some of the concepts that are part of Tawheed, or introducing ideas that have nothing to do with it.
There may come a time when it needs to be explained further, so the scholars will explain it with more categories in order to make it easier to understand.
This is a brief explanation of what is meant by the three categories of Tawheed:
Belief in Divine Lordship (ruboobiyyah): This means believing that Allaah is the only One Who creates, gives life and death, etc.
Belief in the Divine nature (uloohiyyah): This means believing that Allaah is the only One Who to whom the people should devote their words and actions, both inward and outward. So none is to be worshipped but Him, may He be glorified and exalted.
Belief in the names and attributes of Allaah (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat): which means affirming what Allaah has affirmed for Himself of names and attributes, and denying any attributes that Allaah has said are not His, without denying any of His attributes or likening any of His attributes to the attributes of any of His creation.
The scholars’ dividing Tawheed into these categories is nothing new, rather it was known in the third and fourth centuries AH, as was mentioned by Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd, a member of the Council of Senior Scholars, in his book al-Radd ‘ala al-Mukhaalif. This categorization was also narrated from Ibn Jareer al-Tabari and other scholars.
Note: what the questioner mentioned, that Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah divided Tawheed into two categories – Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of divine Lordship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the divine names and attributes) – is not correct. Rather he divided it into two categories which were Tawheed al-Ma’rifah wa’l-Ithbaat (Oneness of knowledge and affirmation) and Tawheed al-Qasd wa’l-Talab (Oneness of object and aim), the first of which includes Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah andTawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat.
See Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 15/164; al-Fataawa al-Kubra, 5/250
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah
This division is taken from study and analysis. When the scholars analyzed the texts of the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), this became clear to them. Some of them added a fourth category, which is Tahweed al-Mutaaba’ah (oneness of following). All of that is derived from study and analysis.
Undoubtedly the one who ponders the meanings of the Qur’aan will find that it contains verses which enjoin devoting worship sincerely to Allaah alone. This is Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of the Divine Nature). And he will find verses which indicate that Allaah is the Creator and the Provider, that He is in control of all things. This is Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (oneness of the Divine Lordship), which the mushrikoon affirmed, but that did not make them Muslims. He will also find other verses which indicate that Allaah has the Most Beautiful Names and the Most Sublime Attributes, and that He has no equal or peer. This is Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes), which was denied by the innovators such as the Jahamiyyah, Mu’tazilah, anthropomorphists and those who followed in their footsteps.
There are verses which indicate that it is obligatory to follow the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and to reject whatever goes against his laws. This is Tawheed al-Mutaaba’ah (Oneness of Following). This categorization is known from study and analysis of the relevant aayahs and the Sunnah. For example, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)” [al-Faatihah 1:5]
“O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allaah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious)” [al-Baqarah 2:21]
“And your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God — Allaah), Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful” [al-Baqarah 2:163]
“And I (Allaah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).
I seek not any provision from them (i.e. provision for themselves or for My creatures) nor do I ask that they should feed Me (i.e. feed themselves or My creatures).
Verily, Allaah is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong” [al-Dhaariyaat 51:56-58]
“Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)!” [al-A’raaf 7:54]
“There is nothing like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer” [al-Shoora 42:11]
“Say (O Muhammad): “He is Allaah, (the) One.
Allaah-us-Samad [Allaah — the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].
He begets not, nor was He begotten.
And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him” [al-Ikhlaas 112:1-4]
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): If you (really) love Allaah, then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur’aan and the Sunnah), Allaah will love you and forgive you your sins” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:31]
“Say: “Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (Messenger Muhammad) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allaah’s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way (i.e. to preach in a plain way)” [al-Noor 24:54]
And there are many aayahs which point towards this categorization.
In the ahaadeeth:
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, according to the hadeeth of Mu’aadh whose authenticity is agreed upon (al-Bukhaari, 2856; Muslim, 30):
“It is the right of Allaah upon His slaves that they should worship Him and not associate anything with Him.”
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever dies invoking anything other than Allaah as a rival to Allaah will enter Hell.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4497; Muslim, 92).
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to Jibreel (peace be upon him), when he asked him about Islam: “It means to worship Allaah and not associate anything with Him, to pray the prescribed prayers, to pay the obligatory zakaah…” (Agreed upon; al-Bukhaari, 50; Muslim, 9).
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever obeys me obeys Allaah, and whoever disobeys me disobeys Allaah.” (Agreed upon; al-Bukhaari, 2957; Muslim, 1835).
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “All of my ummah will enter Paradise except those who refuse.” It was said, “O Messenger of Allaah, who are those who refuse?” He said, “Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise and whoever disobeys me has refused.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh, 7280).
And there are many similar ahaadeeth.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “God is the One Who is worshipped and obeyed. God is the One Who is loved, and the One Who is loved is the One Who deserves to be worshipped. The reason why He deserves to be worshipped is because of His Attributes which imply that He is the Most Beloved to Whom the utmost submission is due.”
And he said: “God is the One Who is loved and worshipped, Whom hearts love, to Whom they submit, before Whom they humble themselves, Whom they fear and hope, to Whom they turn at times of difficulty, calling upon Him with regard to their concerns, putting their trust in Him with regard to their interests, seeking refuge in Him, finding tranquility in the remembrance of Him and peace of mind in love for Him. That is only for Allaah, therefore the phrase Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (there is no god except Allaah) is the most truthful of speech. Those who believe this are the people of Allaah and His party, and those who deny it are His enemies who are subject to His wrath and vengeance. If a person gets this right his entire situation will be good, and if he fails to achieve this then his knowledge and actions will inevitably be corrupt.”
We ask Allaah to help all the Muslims, rulers and ruled alike, to understand His religion, to adhere steadfastly to it, to be sincere towards Allaah and His slaves and to beware of that which Allaah has forbidden, for He is Able to do that. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.
6. Discussion With a Christian: The Oneness of God is the Message of Jesus and all the Prophets, Peace be Upon Them
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Thank you for giving us the opportunity to communicate and discuss the truth which we all need to know and follow, no matter what our previous differences of opinion and beliefs. It is only by means of this, I mean by knowing the truth and following it, that we can free ourselves of our sins, as it says in your Bible:
“Then you will know the truth and the truth will set you free” John 8:31 – New International Version (NIV)
So let us pause for a while and think about this truth, as it is stated in your Bible despite all the distortions and changes that have happened to it!
The message that was brought by the Messiah (peace be upon him) was the call to worship God, the One, the Lord of the Messiah and the Lord of the worlds:
“Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent” John 17:3 – NIV
“A certain ruler asked him: ‘Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?’
‘Why do you call me good?’ Jesus answered. ‘No one is good – except God alone.’” Luke 18:18-19 – NIV
“The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world.
And he said to him, ‘I will give you all their authority and splendour, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to.
So if you worship me, it will all be yours.’
Jesus answered, ‘It is written: “Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.”’” Luke 4:5-8 – NIV
Believing in and worshipping Allaah alone, besides Whom there is no other god, is the greatest teaching brought by the Messiah, and it is the greatest teaching brought by all the Prophets.
“One of the teachers of the law came and noticed them debating. Noticing that Jesus had given them a good answer, he asked him, ‘Of all the commandments, which is the most important?’
‘The most important one,’ answered Jesus, ‘is this: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.”
The second is this: “Love your neighbour as yourself.” There is no commandment greater than these.’
‘Well said, teacher,’ the man replied. ‘You are right in saying that God is one and there is no other but him.
To love him with all your heart, with all your understanding and with all your strength, and to love your neighbour as yourself is more important than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.’
When Jesus saw that he has answered wisely, he said to him, ‘You are not far from the kingdom of God.’ And from then on no one dared ask him any more questions.” Mark 12:28-34 – NIV
But do not think that this advice was given to Israel or to his own people only. Rather this is the basis of the teachings of all the Prophets. The same advice appears in the Gospel of Matthew, in similar wording, after which he says:
“All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.” Matthew 22:39 – NIV
This belief in the oneness of God is indeed the message of all of the Prophets. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): Laa ilaaha illa Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allaah)], so worship Me (Alone and none else)” [al-Anbiya’ 21:25]
This is the basic message to which the Messiah called people and warned them against differing from that. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Surely, they have disbelieved who say: ‘Allaah is the Messiah [‘Eesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary).’ But the Messiah [‘Eesa (Jesus)] said: ‘O Children of Israel! Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.’ Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) there are no helpers” [al-Maa'idah 5:72]
This is the basic principle on which we should all agree. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): ‘O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allaah (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims’” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:64]
It is alien to true Christianity, this futile attempt to reconcile the belief in the Oneness of God, which is the message brought by the Prophets, and which is clearly stated in their Bible, and affirmed in the Torah in particular, with their belief in the trinity.
It says in the American Encyclopedia:
The belief in the Oneness of God – as a theological movement – began at a very early stage in history, and in fact it preceded the belief in trinity by many decades. Christianity developed from Judaism, and Judaism firmly believes that there is one God.
The path that led from Jerusalem (the home of the first disciples of Christ) to Nicea (where it was decided in 325 CE that Christ was equal to God in essence and eternal nature) can hardly be described as a straight path.
The doctrine of trinity which was affirmed in the fourth century CE bears no resemblance to the original teachings of Christ concerning the nature of God. Au contraire, it is the opposite, a deviation from that teaching. Hence it developed in opposition to the belief in One God… (27/294).
You can refer to the views of some of those Christians who still believe in the Oneness of God in the same American Encyclopedia, 27/300-301
It is difficult to comprehend, so no wonder you were never able to comprehend it. But what is strange is that you believe in something that is impossible to understand, unless we deceive ourselves and say that this understanding will come on the Last Day:
“We understand that as much as our minds are able to, and we hope that we will understand it more clearly in the future, when the veil is removed from all things in heaven and on earth. But for now, the extent to which we do understand it is enough!”
Yes, the truth will become perfectly clear to you in the future, as it is clear to us today, praise be to Allaah, on the Day on which Allaah will gather the Messengers and make them bear witness concerning their nations. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (remember) when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): ‘O ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allaah?’ He will say: ‘Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner‑self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All‑Knower of all that is hidden (and unseen).
‘Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allaah) did command me to say: Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things. (This is a great admonition and warning to the Christians of the whole world).
‘If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are the All‑Mighty, the All‑Wise.’
Allaah will say: This is a Day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise) — they shall abide therein forever. Allaah is pleased with them and they with Him. That is the great success (Paradise).
120. To Allaah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things” [al-Maa’idah 5:116-120].
A. Praise be to Allaah Who has made good dear to you; we ask Him to increase you in guidance and faith, and to guide your parents to practise Islam and adhere to its rulings.
With regard to the Quraan and the proof that it is the word of Allaah, these are specious arguments which were put forward out of stubbornness and arrogance by the first kaafirs to whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sent. Allaah refuted what they said in many ways, proving their words to be false and pointing out what was wrong with it. For example:
1. This Quraan is challenge from Allaah to mankind and the jinn to produce anything like it, but they were unable to. Then He challenged them to produce only ten soorahs like it, and they were unable to. Then He challenged them to produce something like the shortest soorah in the Quraan, and they could not do it, even though those who were being challenged were the most eloquent and well-spoken of mankind, and the Quraan was revealed in their language. Yet despite that they stated that they were completely incapable of doing that. This challenge has remained down throughout history, but not one person has been able to produce anything like it. If this were the word of a human being, some people would have been able to produce something like it or close to it. There is a great deal of evidence for this challenge in the Quraan, for example, the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
Say: If the mankind and the jinn were together to produce the like of this Quraan, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another ; [al-Israa 17:88]
Allaah says, challenging them to produce just ten soorahs:
Or they say, He (Prophet Muhammad) forged it (the Quraan). Say: Bring you then ten forged Soorah (chapters) like unto it, and call whomsoever you can, other than Allaah (to your help), if you speak the truth! [Hood 11:13 interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah says, challenging them to produce just one soorah:
And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Quraan) to Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a Soorah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allaah, if you are truthful [al-Baqarah 2:23 interpretation of the meaning]
2. No matter how much knowledge and understanding mankind attains, they will still inevitably make mistakes, forget things or fall short. If the Quraan were not the word of Allaah, there would be some contradictions and shortcomings in it, as Allaah says:
Had it been from other than Allaah, they would surely, have found therein many a contradiction [al-Nisa 4:82 interpretation of the meaning]
But it is free from any shortcoming, error or contradiction; indeed, all of it is wisdom, mercy and justice. Whoever thinks that there is any contradiction in it, that is because of his diseased thinking and mistaken understanding; if he refers to the scholars they will explain to him what is correct and clear up the confusion for him, as Allaah says:
Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder (i.e. the Quraan) when it came to them (shall receive the punishment). And verily, it is an honourable well fortified respected Book (because it is Allaahs Speech, and He has protected it from corruption).
Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allaah)” [Fussilat 41:41-42 interpretation of the meaning]
3. Allaah has guaranteed to preserve this Quraan, and He says:
Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Quraan) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)” [al-Hijr 15:9 interpretation of the meaning]
Every letter of it was transmitted by thousands from thousands down throughout history, and not one letter of it was altered. If any person tried to alter anything in it, or add something or take something away, then he would be exposed straight away, because Allaah is the One Who has guaranteed to preserve the Quraan, unlike the case with other divinely-revealed Books which Allaah revealed to the people of a particular Prophet only, and not to all of mankind, so He did not guarantee to preserve them, rather He delegated their preservation to the followers of the Prophets. But they did not preserve them, rather they introduced alterations and changes which distorted most of the meanings. The Quraan, on the other hand, was revealed by Allaah to all of mankind until the end of time, because the Message of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the final message, so the Quraan is preserved in mens hearts and in written form, as is proven by the events of history. How many people have tried to change the aayahs of the Quraan and deceive the Muslims, but they were quickly exposed and their falsehood was discovered, even by Muslim children.
Another of the definitive signs that this Quraan was not produced by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) but that it came revealed by Allaah to him is the following:
4. The great miracles which the Quraan contains of legislation, rulings, stories and beliefs, which could not be produced by any created being no matter how great his intelligence and level of understanding. No matter how hard people try to promulgate laws to regulate their lives, they can never succeed so long as they are far away from the teachings of the Quraan; the further away they are, the greater their rate of failure. This is something that has been proven by the kuffaar themselves.
5. Reports of matters of the unseen, both past and future, which no human being could speak of independently, no matter how great his knowledge, especially at that time which is regarded as primitive in terms of technology and modern tools. There are many things which had not been discovered yet, and which have only been discovered after lengthy and difficult exploration with the most modern equipment, but Allaah told us about them in the Quraan, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) mentioned them, fifteen centuries ago, such as the stages of embryonic development, the nature of the oceans, etc. These things have made some kaafirs state that this could only have come from God, as in the case of the development of the embryo:
Only 60 years ago, researchers confirmed that man does not come into existence all at once, but rather he passes through stages of development one after another. Only 60 years ago, science discovered this one Quraanic fact.
Shaykh al-Zandaani said, we met an American professor, one of the greatest American scientists, whose name was Professor Marshall Johnson, and we told him that it says in the Qur’aan that man is created in stages. When he heard this, he was sitting down, but he stood up and said, Stages? We said, That was in the seventh century CE! This Book came and said, man was created in stages. He said, That is impossible, impossible We told him, Why do you say that? This Book says (interpretation of the meaning):
He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness [al-Zumar 39:6]
What is the matter with you, that [you fear not Allaah (His punishment), and] you hope not for reward (from Allaah or you believe not in His Oneness).
While He has created you in (different) stages [Nooh 71:14]
Then he sat back down on his chair and after a few moments he said, There are only three possibilities. The first is that Muhammad had a huge microscope through which he managed to study these things and he knew things that the people did not know, and he said these things. The second is that this happened by accident, it was a coincidence. The third is that he was a Messenger from God. We said, With regard to the first idea, that he had a microscope and other equipment, you know that a microscope needs lenses, and lenses need glass and technical expertise and other equipment. Some of this information can only be discovered with an electron microscope which needs electricity, and electricity needs knowledge which should have been acquired by an earlier generation. It is not possible for this knowledge to have been acquired all at once in a single generation; the previous generation would have had to strive hard in developing science and transmitting it to the next generation, and so on. But for this to be the work of one man, with no one coming before him or after him, either in his own land or the neighbouring lands for the Romans, Persians and Arabs were ignorant and had no such equipment for one man to have all these instruments and tools which he did not pass on to anyone else this is not possible. He said, Thats right, it would be very difficult. We said, And for it to have been an accident or coincidence, what would you think if we said that the Quraan did not mention this fact only in one verse but in several verses, and that it did not refer to it in general terms but that it gave details of every stage, saying that in the first stage such and such happens, in the second stage such and such happens, in the third stage and so on. Could that be a coincidence? When we explained to him all the details of those stages, he said, It is wrong to say that this is an accident! This is well-founded knowledge. We said, Then how do you explain it? He said, There is no explanation except that this is revelation from above!
With regard to the many statements in the Quraan concerning the sea, some of these facts were not discovered until very recently, and many of them are still unknown. For example, these facts were discovered after hundreds of marine stations had been set up, and after images had been taken by satellites. The one who said this was Professor Schroeder, one of the greatest oceanographers in West Germany. He used to say that if science advanced, religion would have to retreat. But when he heard the translation of the verses of the Quraan, he was stunned and said, These could not be the words of a human being. And Professor Dorjaro, a professor of oceanography, told us of the latest developments on science, when he heard the aayah:
Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allaah has not appointed light, for him there is no light [al-Noor 24:40 interpretation of the meaning]
He said, In the past, man could not dive to a depth of more than twenty meters because he had no special equipment. But now we can dive to the bottom of the ocean, using modern equipment, and we find intense darkness at a depth of two hundred meters. The aayah says a vast deep sea . The discoveries in the depths of the sea give us an understanding of the aayah,(layers of) darkness upon darkness. It is known that there are seven colours in the spectrum, including red, yellow, blue, green, orange, etc. When we dive down into the depths of the ocean, these colours disappear one after another, and the disappearance of each colour results in more darkness. Red disappears first, then orange, then yellow the last colour to disappear is blue, at a depth of two hundred meters. Each colour that disappears adds to the darkness until it reaches total darkness. With regard to the phrasewaves topped by waves, it has been proven scientifically that there is a separation between the upper and lower parts of the ocean, and that this separation is filled with waves, as if there are waves on the edge of the dark, lower portion of the sea, which we do not see, and there are waves on the shores of the sea, which we do see. So it is as if there are waves above waves. This is a confirmed scientific fact, hence Professor Dorjaro said concerning these Quraanic verses, that this cannot be human knowledge.
(See al-Adillah al-Maadiyyah ala Wujood-Allaah by Muhammad Mitwalli al-Sharaawi)
And there are very many such examples
6. In the Quraan there are some aayahs which rebuke the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and mention some things to which Allaah drew his attention. Some of them may have been embarrassing for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). But if this Quraan had come from the Messenger of Allaah, there would have been no need for this; if he were to conceal any part of the Quraan, he would have concealed some of these verses which contained rebukes or drew his attention to certain matters which he should not have done, such as the verse in which Allaah says to His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allaah has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allaah will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e., their saying that Muhammad married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allaah had a better right that you should fear Him [al-Ahzaab 33:37 interpretation of the meaning]
After this, can there be any doubt left in the mind of any intelligent person that this Quraan is the word of Allaah, and that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) conveyed that which was revealed to him in full?
Moreover, we tell this person, try it for yourself, read a sound translation of the Quraan and use your mind to ponder these rules and regulations. There is no doubt that any intelligent person who has the power of discernment will see a great difference between these words (of Allaah) and the words of any person on the face of the earth.
With regard to your relationship with this young man, this noble religion forbids women to mix with men for a great and wise reason. So you have to stop meeting him and break off your relationship with him until he becomes Muslim, in which case you can marry him in a proper Islamic marriage. In the answer to Question no. 1200 you will find an explanation of the rulings on a Muslim woman mixing with non-mahram men.
With regard to your love for him, this is a test from Allaah will you put your love of Allaah before your love for one of His creation, or will you put your love for this person before the love of your almighty Lord Who has forbidden such things. Note that whoever gives up something for the sake of Allaah, Allaah will compensate him with something better than that, the first of which is that you will find, in sha Allah, that Allaah will compensate you with comfort and tranquility in loving Him and striving to draw closer to Allaah by means of that which He loves; so your love for your Lord and your attachment to Him will increase, and your attachment to all of His creation will become weaker. In the answer to Question no. 10254 you will find some solutions to this problem.
With regard to the ruling on a Muslim woman marrying a kaafir man, this is haraam according to scholarly consensus, indeed it is one of the major immoral actions which Allaah has forbidden in the Quraan. In the answer to Question no. 8396 and 1825 you will find a detailed response to this question.
We advise you to be patient and to put up with difficulties, and to keep far away from everything that may cause you to do things that would anger your Lord. Note that Allaah has made this world a place of trial and testing for His believing slaves; whoever is patient and refrains from following his desries, seeking the pleasure of Allaah, Allaah will compensate him with Paradise where He will bestow upon him all kinds of delight which cannot be compared with the fleeting worldly pleasures that he sacrificed. This is in addition to the happiness and tranquility that he will find in his heart when he obeys his Lord.
Perhaps if he sees how you adhere to your religion and avoid meeting him and sitting with him despite your love for him, he will come to realize the greatness of this religion which makes its followers prepared to sacrifice all that they love in order to please their Lord, and that they hope for a great reward from their Lord for their patience in obeying Him and keeping away from that which He has forbidden and perhaps that will be the cause of his becoming Muslim.
We ask Allaah to guide him to Islam, and to make goodness easy for you, and to keep all evil away from you Ameen.
A. I was very happy to hear that you and your sisters are studying Islamic issues and trying to find out about Islamic views of love. No doubt you and your sisters understand the importance of the scholars’ views and referring to them in matters of dispute. I will quote here a number of views about love, so that you will understand the matter better, in sha Allaah
Love may be divided into mahabbah khaassah (specific love) and mahabbah mushtarakah (general love).
Mahabbah khaassah (specific love):
Specific love may be divided into types that are halaal and types that are haraam.
Halaal love includes:
1. Love of Allaah, which is the most important obligation, as it is the basis of Islam. By perfecting one’s love of Allaah, one perfects one’s faith. If one’s love of Allaah is lacking, then one’s Tawheed is also lacking. The daleel (evidence) for this is the aayaat (interpretation of the meaning):
“. . . But those who believe, love Allaah more (than anything else) . . .” [al-Baqarah 2:165]
“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight . . . are dearer to you than Allaah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allaah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allaah guides not the people who are faasiqoon (rebellious, disobedient).” [al-Tawbah 9:24]
There are also other similar proofs in the Qur’aan and Sunnah.
Love of Allaah may also take the form of preferring what Allaah loves and wants of His slave to what the slave himself might love and want. So he loves what Allaah loves, hates what He hates, takes as friends or regards as enemies for His sake, and adheres to His laws. There is much that may strengthen this love.
2. Love of Allaah’s Messenger, which is also one of the most important duties of Islaam. Indeed, faith is not complete until a person loves the Messenger of Allaah more than he loves himself, as in the ahaadeeth:
“The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘None of you truly believes until I am more beloved to him than his child, his father and all the people.” (Reported by Muslim, no. 44).
‘Abdullaah ibn Hishaam said: “We were with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, and he was holding the hand of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab. ‘Umar said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, you are dearer to me than everything except my own self.’ The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘No (that is not right), by the One in Whose hand is my soul, until I am dearer to you than your own self.’ ‘Umar said to him, ‘Now, by Allaah, you are dearer to me than my own self.’ The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘Now (you are right), O ‘Umar.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, no. 6632).
This love is part of loving Allaah and is manifested by following the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and preferring his opinion over that of others.
3. Love of the Prophets and the believers. This is obligatory because loving Allaah dictates that one should love the people who obey Him, in other words the Prophets and righteous people. The daleel (evidence) for this is the hadeeth “Whoever loves for the sake of Allaah (i.e., loves the people of faith for the sake of Allaah).” Obedience to Allaah is based on love of Allaah. Faith cannot be perfected except in this way, even if one has a lot of prayer and fasting to one’s credit. As ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said: “You have seen us at the time of the Messenger of Allaah: none of us would think that he had more right to his own money than his Muslim brother.”
This includes love which constitutes shirk, which is when a person loves something instead of Allaah or as much as Him. In such a case he has taken that thing as a rival to Allaah. This is the shirk of love, and most people have taken things as rivals to Allaah in love and glorification.
There are also types of forbidden love which do not go to the extent of shirk, such as loving one’s family, wealth, tribe, business or house, and preferring those things, in whole or in part, over doing the duties that Allaah requires of him, such as hijrah (migration for His sake), jihaad, etc. The daleel (evidence) for this is the aayah quoted above (“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight . . . are dearer to you than Allaah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allaah brings about His Decision (torment).” [al-Tawbah 9:24])
Mahabbah mushtarakah (general love):
General love is of three types:
(1) Natural love, such as the love of a hungry person for food, or a thirsty person for water. This does not involve any kind of glorification, so it is permissible.
(2) Love based on mercy and pity, such as the love of a father for his small child. This also involves no kind of glorification, so there is nothing wrong with it.
(3) Love based on acquaintance and friendship, such as that between those who share a common profession, or scholars in the same field, or people one meets on a daily basis (such as fellow-commuters), or people one does business with, or travelling-companions. This type of appropriate love between people, or brotherly love, does not imply shirk or associating anyone else in one’s love for Allaah.
For more information, see Kitaab Tayseer al-‘Azeez, Baab wa min al-naas man yattakhidhu min doon-Allaahi andaadan.
We hope that this explanation makes the matter clearer. We ask Allaah to bless you and us with good. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Prostrating is of two kinds:
It may an act of veneration and drawing closer to the one to whom one prostrates. This kind of prostration is worship, and should only be done for Allaah, according to the laws of the Prophets.
The second type is a kind of greeting and honouring a person. This is the kind of prostration which Allaah commanded the angels to do in the case of Adam, so they prostrated to him as an act of honouring him. It was an act of worship towards Allaah on their part, because they were obeying His command to prostrate to Adam.
The prostration of Yoosuf’s parents and brothers was also a prostration of greeting and honouring, which was permissible according to the law (of Allaah) at that time. But according to the sharee’ah brought by the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم, it is not permissible to prostrate to anyone at all except Allaah. Hence the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “If I were to have commanded anyone to prostrate to anyone else, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم forbade Mu’aadh to prostrate to him when he (Mu’aadh) said that the People of the Book prostrated to the great ones among them, and he mentioned the hadeeth quoted above. The prohibition in this sharee’ah against prostrating to anyone at all except Allaah is an aspect of its perfection in achieving true Tawheed. It is the perfect sharee’ah whose perfection is manifested in all its rulings. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion” [al-Maa’idah 5:3]
Written by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Not everything that is worshipped instead of Allaah can be considered to be taaghoot. The most correct scholarly view concerning the meaning of the word Taaghoot is that of Ibn Jareer al-Tabari, who said in his Tafseer (3/21):
The correct opinion concerning Taaghoot, in my view, is that it refers to everyone who arrogates to himself a position that is befitting only for Allaah, and so is worshipped instead of Him, either by forcing others to worship him or by accepting their willing worship. The one that is thus worshipped may be a human being, or a shaytaan (devil), or an idol, or a statue, or some other being.
He also said that the root of Taaghoot implies putting oneself in a higher position and overstepping the mark.
The Prophets, scholars, righteous people and awliyaa’ (those who are close to Allaah) did not force people to worship them or obey them in such a thing. On the contrary, they issued the sternest warning against it. The purpose behind Allaah’s sending Messengers to mankind was to call them to believe in Allaah alone and to disbelieve in other gods besides Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): ‘Worship Allaah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taaghoot (all false deities, etc. i.e., do not worship Taaghoot besides Allaah)…” [al-Nahl 16:36]
And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (remember) when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O ‘Eesaa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allaah?’ ” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner‑self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All‑Knower of all that is hidden (and unseen). “Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allaah) did command me to say: ‘Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.’ And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things” [al-Maa’idah 5:116-117]
If people worship Prophets or scholars instead of Allaah, we should not apply the word Taaghoot to the object of their worship.
If people exaggerate about al-Shaafa’i or any other scholar (may Allaah have mercy on them), and call upon them for help instead of Allaah, or worships their graves, there is no sin on those scholars; on the contrary, the burden of sin is on the one who associates others in worship with Allaah (Shirk). The same is true in the case of the Christians who worship ‘Eesaa (Jesus – peace be upon him) alongside Allaah. ‘Eesaa (peace be upon him) will not bear any part of their burden of sin. A brief definition of Taaghoot is: whoever is worshipped instead of Allaah and accepts that. It is well known that ‘Eesaa (peace be upon him) and other Prophets, and also al-Shaafa’i and other scholars who believed in Allaah alone (Tawheed) would never accept to be worshipped instead of Allaah. On the contrary, they forbade that and preached the message of Tawheed. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (remember) when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O ‘Eesaa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allaah?’ ” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All Knower of all that is hidden (and unseen). “Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allaah) did command me to say: ‘Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.’ And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things” [al-Maa’idah 5:116-117].
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
The first duty enjoined upon mankind is the first thing to which people should be called. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained that to Mu’aadh ibn Jabal (may Allaah be pleased with him) when he sent him to Yemen. He said to him: “You will come to some of the People of the Book, so let the first thing to which you call them be the testimony that there is no god but Allaah and that Muhammad is His Messenger.” This is the first duty enjoined upon people, to believe in Allaah alone and to bear witness that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is his Messenger. By affirming the Unity of Allaah (Tawheed) and bearing witness to His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), one attains sincerity (ikhlaas) and obedience (in accordance with what is prescribed in sharee’ah), and these are the conditions of all acts of worship being accepted.
Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il Fadeelat al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, vol. 1, p. 84, question no. 29
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Allaah alone is the Lord, the Creator, the Provider… the Sovereign, the Controller… the All-Knowing, All-Wise… the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of all that exists… The All-Hearing, All-Seeing… The Subtle and Courteous, the All-Aware… the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful… the Ever-Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving… the Almighty, the Compeller… the Oft-Pardoning, the Most Generous… the Most Strong, the All-Powerful… the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms…
To Him belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, in His hand is goodness and He is able to do all things.
There is none worthy of worship but He, and to Him belong the most beautiful names and sublime attributes:
“Allaah! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He)! To Him belong the Best Names” [Ta-Ha 20:8 – interpretation of the meaning]
He does whatever He wills and judges as He wants:
“And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses” [al-Qasas 28:68 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is the Owner of Sovereignty; He honours whomever He wills and humiliates whomever He wills:
“Say (O Muhammad): ‘O Allaah! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and You take the kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honour whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do all things’” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:26 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is the One Who gives life and death, and nothing on earth or in heaven is hidden from Him:
“It is Allaah that gives life and causes death. And Allaah is All-Seer of what you do” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:156 – interpretation of the meaning]
His alone is the creation and the commandment:
“Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)!” [al-A’raaf 5:54 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is the First, and there is nothing before Him… He is the last and there is nothing after Him… He is the Most High, and there is nothing above Him… He is the Most Near, and there is nothing beneath Him…
“He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him). And He is the All-Knower of every thing” [al-Hadeed 57:3 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is the Creator of all things and He is the All-Knower of everything:
“Such is Allaah, your Lord! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone), and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs or Guardian) over all things
[al-An’aam 6:102 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is Subtle, Most Great, All-Encompassing:
“Allaah is Ever All Aware” [al-Nisaa’ 4:126 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is Ever-Living, the Sustainer of all that exists… To Him belongs everything in the heavens and on earth… Nothing is hidden from Him… Nothing is beyond His capability… Nothing can encompass Him:
“Allaah! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayy al-Qayyoom (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists). Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursiy extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great” [al-Baqarah 2:255 – interpretation of the meaning]
He knows all things and records the numbers of all things:
“and all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Clear Book” [Yaa-Seen 36:12 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is Most Generous and Bountiful… all provision comes from Him:
“And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah” [Hood 11:6 – interpretation of the meaning]
His blessings cannot be counted or numbered:
“And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allaah, never will you be able to count them” [Ibraaheem 14:34 – interpretation of the meaning]
His stores fill the earth and the heavens:
“And to Allaah belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth” [al-Munaafiqeen 63:7 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is Free of all needs and Worthy of all praise; He gives to His slaves but that never diminishes His stores:
“O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allaah. But Allaah is Rich (Free of all needs), Worthy of all praise” [Faatir 35:15 – interpretation of the meaning
He is Oft-Pardoning and Oft-Forgiving; He bestows mercy upon His slaves and overlooks their sins:
“Verily, Allaah indeed is Oft Pardoning, Oft Forgiving” [al-Hajj 22:60 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is the Knower of the unseen and the seen… He is Almighty in His sovereignty, Wise in His commands:
“All-Knower of the unseen and seen, the All Mighty, the All-Wise” [al-Taghaabun 64:18 – interpretation of the meaning]
He knows what is secret and what is open; nothing is hidden from Him:
“And He is Allaah (to be worshipped Alone) in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn (good or bad) [al-An’aam 6:3 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is Subtle and Courteous, All-Aware:
“No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all vision. He is Al-Lateef (the Most Subtle and Courteous), Well-Acquainted with all things” [al-An’aam 6:103 – interpretation of the meaning]
He is One in His essence, attributes and actions:
“Say (O Muhammad): ‘He is Allaah, (the) One.
Allaah-us-Samad [Allaah — the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].
He begets not, nor was He begotten.
And there is none co equal or comparable unto Him” [al-Ikhlaas 112:1-4 – interpretation of the meaning]
Glory be to Him; His are the most beautiful names and sublime attributes, and He has no partner or associate:
“Such is Allaah your Lord. His is the kingdom. Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). How then are you turned away?” [al-Zumar 39:6 – interpretation of the meaning]
Because of this Sovereignty, these attributes, this creation, these blessings, He is the only One Who is deserving of praise and thanks and sincere worship, to the exclusion of all others:
“Surely, your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose over (Istawa) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty), disposing the affair of all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His Leave. That is Allaah, your Lord; so worship Him (Alone). Then, will you not remember?” [Yoonus 10:3 – interpretation of the meaning]
He created (everything) then proportioned it, He ordained laws then granted guidance, He granted provision and made people independent of means:
“Allaah, it is He Who has made for you the earth as a dwelling place and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good (looking) and has provided you with good things. That is Allaah, your Lord, so Blessed be Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists” [Ghaafir 40:64 – interpretation of the meaning]
O Allaah, to You be praise for Your great sovereignty:
“All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth [Saba’ 34:1 – interpretation of the meaning]
O Allaah, to You be praise for Your mighty creation:
“All praises and thanks be to Allaah, Who (Alone) created the heavens and the earth [al-An’aam 6:1 – interpretation of the meaning]
O Allaah, to You be praise, for You have guided us to Islam, You have sent down to us the Qur’aan, You have provided us with good things, You have made us the best of nations, You have honoured us with great blessings. There is no god but You, to You belongs the Sovereignty, Yours is the Creation and the Commandment, all blessings and praise are Yours…
“All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists).
The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)
You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). [al-Faatihah 1:2-5 – interpretation of the meaning]
From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri
13. The hadeeth about Adam’s tawassul by the Prophet, and the meaning of the verse “And seek the means of approach to Him”
A. Praise be to Allaah.
The hadeeth about Adam committing a sin and seeking to draw closer to Allaah by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is a fabricated hadeeth which is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and to Adam (peace be upon him).
We have stated that in the answer to question no. 34715, where we quoted the scholars’ comments on the falseness of this hadeeth. These scholars include Imam al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him).
Al-Bayhaqi (may Allaah have mercy on him) did not narrate this hadeeth in his Sunan, rather he narrated it in Dalaa’il al-Nubuwwah (5/489), where he classed it as da’eef (weak). After quoting the hadeeth, he said: “It was narrated only by ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam, and he is da’eef.”
What makes it most likely that the text is false is the fact that the du’aa’ by which Allaah accepted Adam’s repentance is what is mentioned in Soorat al-A’raaf, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They said: ‘Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers’” [al-A’raaf 7:23]
This is the supplication of Adam and Hawwa’, in which they called upon Allaah alone, and sought to draw close to Him (tawassul) by His names and attributes, and by mentioning their situation. These are words which Adam received from his Lord, then he said them and Allaah accepted his repentance, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful” [al-Baqarah 2:37]
What is meant by the word waseelah [means of approach] in the verse, (interpretation of the meaning):
“O you who believe! Do your duty to Allaah and fear Him. And seek the means of approach to Him, and strive hard in His Cause (as much as you can), so that you may be successful” [al-Maa’idah 5:35]
is the way of reaching Allaah, and there is no way of reaching Him except the way that Allaah loves and is pleased with, which is by obeying Him and not disobeying Him.
Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Allaah commands His believing slaves to fear Him (taqwa). When this word is accompanied by mention of obedience, it means refraining from haraam things. After that Allaah says, “And seek the means of approach to Him”. Sufyaan al-Thawri said, narrating from Talhah, from ‘Ata’, from Ibn ‘Abbaas: i.e., drawing close to Him. This was also stated by Mujaahid, Abu Waa’il, al-Hasan, Qataadah, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Katheer, al-Saddi, Ibn Zayd and others. Qataadah said: i.e., draw close to Him by obeying Him and doing that which pleases Him, and Ibn Zayd recited (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those whom they call upon [like ‘Eesa (Jesus) ‑ son of Maryam (Mary), ‘Uzayr (Ezra), angels and others] desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allaah)” [al-Isra’ 17:57]
There is no difference of opinion among the mufassireen concerning what these imams said.
Means of approach or means of access means that by means of which one reaches one’s goal. End quote. Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 2/53, 54.
Al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Note that the majority of scholars are of the view that what is meant by waseelah here is drawing close to Allaah by obeying His commands and avoiding that which He has forbidden, in accordance with the teachings brought by Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), doing that sincerely for the sake of Allaah alone, because this is the only path that leads to the pleasure of Allaah and attaining what is with Him and what is good in this world and in the Hereafter.
The basic meaning of the word waseelah is a path that brings one near to something. Here it means righteous deeds, according to scholarly consensus, because there is no other way of drawing close to Allaah apart from following the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Based on this, there are many verses which explain the meaning of waseelah, such as the following (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it” [al-Hashr 59:7]
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): ‘If you (really) love Allaah, then follow me’” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:31]
“Say: Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger” [al-Noor 24:54]
And there are other similar verses.
It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that what is meant by waseelah is need.
Based on this, the words narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas, “Seek with Him al-waseelah” mean, seek your needs from Allaah, for He alone is the one who is able to meet them. This is further explained by the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, those whom you worship besides Allaah have no power to give you provision, so seek your provision from Allaah (Alone), and worship Him (Alone)” [al-‘Ankaboot 29:17]
“and ask Allaah of His Bounty” [al-Nisa’ 4:32]
And by the hadeeth: “If you ask, then ask of Allaah.”
Then al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The correct view concerning the meaning of waseelah is that of the majority of scholars, that it means drawing closer to Allaah by worshipping Him alone, in accordance with the teachings of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The tafseer of Ibn ‘Abbaas comes under this heading, because calling upon Allaah (du’aa’) and praying humbly to Him when asking for one’s needs is one of the greatest forms of worship which is waseelah or seeking to draw closer to Him and attain His pleasure and mercy.
From this it may be understood that what many of the heretics and followers of ignorant men who claim to be Sufis say, which is that what is meant by waseelah in the verse is the Shaykh who has the power of mediation between him and his Lord, is ignorance, blindness and obvious misguidance; it is toying with the Book of Allaah. Taking intermediaries is the essence of the kufr of the kaafirs, as Allaah clearly stated when He said concerning them (interpretation of the meaning):
“[They say:] We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allaah” [al-Zumar 39:3]
“and they say: ‘These are our intercessors with Allaah.’ Say: ‘Do you inform Allaah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?’ Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners (with Him)!” [Yoonus 10:18]
Every one who is accountable must understand that the way to attain the pleasure of Allaah and His Paradise and His mercy is to follow His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Whoever deviates from that has gone astray from the straight path.
“It will not be in accordance with your desires (Muslims), nor those of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof” [al-Nisa’4:123]
The meaning of waseelah that we have explained here is also the meaning in the verse where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those whom they call upon [like ‘Eesa (Jesus) ‑ son of Maryam (Mary), ‘Uzayr (Ezra), angels and others] desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allaah) as to which of them should be the nearest” [al-Isra’ 17:57]
Another meaning of waseelah is the status in Paradise which the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us to ask Allaah to grant to him, and we hope that Allaah will give it to him, because only one person will be entitled to it, and he hoped that he would be the one. End quote.
Adwa’ al-Bayaan, 2/86-88
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.
‘Ibaadah (worship) in Arabic means submission and humbling oneself. The Arabs use the phrase tareeq mu’abbad to describe a smooth path which has been become smooth because so many feet have walked on it.
In Islamic terminology the word ‘ibaadah is used in two senses:
1. The actions of a person, such as praying or paying zakaah, which are described as ‘ibaadah. The scholars defined it as follows:
It means obeying Allaah by doing that which He has commanded and avoiding that which He has forbidden, whilst loving Allaah, fearing Him and putting one’s hopes in Him.
2. It also refers to the action itself in abstract terms, such as prayer, zakaah, etc. The scholars defined it as follows:
This is a comprehensive word which includes all word and deeds that Allaah loves and is pleased with, both outward and inward.
These enjoined actions are called ‘ibaadaat (acts of worship) because people do them in humility and with love for their Lord. In worshipping Allaah there has to be complete love as well as complete submission to Him.
Our Lord has told us that the ultimate purpose behind the creation of the jinn and mankind is so that they will worship Him alone with no partner or associate. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And I (Allaah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone)” [al-Dhaariyaat 51:56]
How can we achieve this purpose and fulfil this goal?
Many people think that ‘ibaadah only refers to a number of rituals that Allaah has commanded should be done at certain times – such as prayer, fasting and Hajj – and that this is the end of the matter. But it is not as these people think.
How long does it take to do these rituals of worship every day and night. Indeed how long does it take in a person’s lifetime? What about the rest of his life then? What about the rest of his energy? What about the rest of his time? How should it be spent and where does it go? Should he spend it in worship or something else? If he is going to spend it in something other than worship, then how can he fulfil the purpose for which mankind was created, which the verse limited completely to worship of Allaah? How can he fulfil the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): Verily, my Salaah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)” [al-An’aam 6:162]
‘Uboodiyyah is a holistic matter that encompasses the life of the Muslim. When he strives in the land seeking provision he is worshipping Allaah, because Allaah has commanded him to do that, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision. And to Him will be the Resurrection” [al-Mulk 67:15]
When he sleeps, he sleeps so as to gather strength to worship Allaah, as Mu’aadh ibn Jabal (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “I seek reward for my sleep just as I seek reward for praying qiyaam” (narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4342). Indeed the Muslim is not content unless his pleasure in eating, drinking and marital relations is counted in the scale of his good deeds, as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “In the intimacy of one of you there is sadaqah (charity, a good deed).” They said: “O Messenger of Allaah, if one of us satisfies his desires will he be rewarded for that?” He said: “What do you think, if you were to do it in a haraam way, would you not have a burden of sin?” They said, “Yes.” He said: “Similarly if he does it in a halaal way he will have a reward.” Narrated by Muslim, 1006.
The way to attain this great status is for a person always to remember his Lord whatever he is doing in all spheres of life, and to ask himself whether he is in a situation where his Lord will be pleased with him or angry with him. If he is in a situation where Allaah will be pleased with him, then let him praise Allaah and do more good. If it is otherwise then let him seek Allaah’s forgiveness and repent to Him, as Allaah describes His pious slaves as doing when He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And those who, when they have committed Faahishah (illegal sexual intercourse) or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allaah and ask forgiveness for their sins; — and none can forgive sins but Allaah — and do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know.
136. For such, the reward is forgiveness from their Lord, and Gardens with rivers flowing underneath (Paradise), wherein they shall abide forever. How excellent is this reward for the doers (who do righteous deeds according to Allaah’s Orders)” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:135-136]
This is how our righteous forebears, the Salaf and those who followed them, understood ‘ibaadah. They did not limit it just to rituals and the times when they performed those rituals, and make the rest of their lives “outside worship”. Rather any one of them would have felt that his entire life was worship and that the rituals were moments when he could focus and renew his spiritual energy to help him do all the other acts of worship that were required of him. Hence they used to pay a great deal of attention to it just as a traveller acquires pays a great deal of attention to the supplies that will help him on his way.
They were as their Lord described them (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those who remember Allaah (always, and in prayers) standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:191]
In all circumstances they used to remember Allaah verbally and in their hearts. The idea of Allaah’s greatness and fear of Allaah were constantly present in their hearts in everything that they did or said. If one of them made a mistake or slipped, he would correct himself as described in the verse quoted above from Soorat Aal ‘Imraan.
And you should note that man is a worshipper by nature; worship is instilled in him. So either he will worship Allaah alone, with no partner or associate, or he will worship something other than Allaah, alongside Him or instead of Him – it makes no difference. This kind of worship is that which Allaah called “the worship of the Shaytaan” because it is a response to the call of the Shaytaan. And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytaan (Satan). Verily, he is a plain enemy to you” [Yaa-Seen 36:60 ].
Man cannot worship both Allaah and the Shaytaan:
“Is he who walks prone (without seeing) on his face, more rightly guided, or he who (sees and) walks upright on the Straight Way (i.e. Islamic Monotheism)?” [al-Mulk 67:22]
“Say: Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light?” [al-Ra’d 13:16]
The Shaytaan tries to lead man away from the worship of Allaah gradually. Sometimes he succeeds on a temporary basis, as in the case of sin, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “No one who commits zina is a believer at the moment of committing zina, and no thief is a believer at the moment of stealing…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2475; Muslim, 57. And sometimes he succeeds completely and severs the connection between a person and his Lord, so that he commits shirk or kufr or heresy – we seek refuge with Allaah.
This worship of the Shaytaan sometimes consists of worshipping whims and desires, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Have you (O Muhammad) seen him who has taken as his ilaah (god) his own vain desire? Would you then be a Wakeel (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?” [al-Furqaan 25:43]
This person who follows the dictates of his whims and desires – doing whatever he thinks is good and abstaining from whatever he thinks is bad – is obeying the whims and desires of his own self, which calls to him, so it is as if he is worshipping it as a man worships his god. And sometimes it takes the form of worshipping money, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Perish the slave of the dinar and the slave of the dirham and the slave of fine clothing; if he is given he is pleased and if he is not given he is angry. Let him perish and relapse, and if he is pierced by a thorn let him not find anyone to remove it for him…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2887.
This applies to everyone whose heart is attached to something other than Allaah of his own whims and desires. If he gets what he wants he is happy and if he does not then he is angry. So he is a slave to whatever he desires, for slavery in fact refers to the enslavement of the heart. The more he is enslaved to these desires, the weaker his submission to his Lord, so if his enslavement to these whims and desires is so strong that it prevents him from adhering to religion completely, then he will become a mushrik and a kaafir. If these whims and desires keep him from doing some of the things that he is obliged to do or they make the idea of doing some of the things that he is forbidden to do, but which do not put a person beyond the pale of Islam, seem attractive to him, then that affects his submission to his Lord and his faith, to the extent to which they keep him from fulfilling his religious commitment.
We ask Allaah to bless us by enabling us to submit completely to Him, and to make us among His sincere slaves and close friends, for He is All-hearing, Ever-Near and Ever-Responsive. And Allaah knows best.
May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.
See Mafaaheem yanbaghi an tusahhah by Shaykh Muhammad Qutub, 20-23, 174-182; al-‘Uboodiyyah by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah.
(The latter book is available in English translation under the title ‘Uboodiyyah – Being A True Slave of Allaah, published by Ta-Ha, London, UK).
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Undoubtedly du’aa’ is one of the greatest acts of worship prescribed in sharee’ah. It brings a person closer to his Lord, may He be glorified. And undoubtedly it is not permissible for anyone to worship Allaah except in the ways that He has prescribed on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Al-Bukhaari (2499) and Muslim (3242) narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours that is not part of it, will have it rejected.” According to the version narrated by Muslim: “Whoever does something that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”
Hence it may be known that turning to Allaah and beseeching Him in ways that were not narrated from His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in word or in deed, and in ways that were not done by the noble Sahaabah who were the keenest of people to do good and adhere to it, is a reprehensible innovation, which a person who loves his Lord and follows His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) should not do and should not worship Allaah in that manner.
If we look at what you have mentioned in your question about beseeching Allaah by virtue of the status of the righteous, their worship and their position before Allaah, we will notice that this is something that has been innovated and was not narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Nor was it narrated from his noble companions that they ever sought to draw close to Allaah by virtue of the Prophet’s position and status before his Lord, whether during his lifetime or after his death. Rather during his lifetime they used to beseech Allaah by virtue of his du’aa’ for them, and when he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died, they sought to draw closer to Allaah by virtue of the du’aa’s of the living righteous, and they stopped seeking to draw closer to Him by virtue of the Prophet’s status. This clearly indicates that if beseeching Allaah or seeking to draw closer to Him by virtue of the Prophet’s status were something good and prescribed in Islam, they would have done it before us. Who dares claim that he is keener than ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) to do good when he turned away from seeking to draw closer to Allaah by virtue of the status of His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and sought to draw closer to Him by virtue of the du’aa’ of the paternal uncle of the Prophet, and the Sahaabah witnessed that and did not denounce him or object to that? It is narrated in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (954) from Anas ibn Maalik that if a drought came, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) would ask al-‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib to pray for rain. He would say: “O Allaah, we used to beseech You by means of (the du’aa’ of) Your Prophet for rain and You would give us rain; now we beseech You by means of (the du’aa’ of) the paternal uncle of Your Prophet, so grant us rain.” Then it would rain.
What is meant by their beseeching Allaah by mean of the du’aa’ of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or of al-‘Abbaas is beseeching Him through their du’aa’, based on what is said in some versions of this hadeeth, that Anas said: “If drought came at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), they would ask him to pray for rain, and he would pray for rain for them, then it would rain. During the caliphate of ‘Umar…” and he narrated the same hadeeth. This was narrated by al-Ismaa’eeli in his al-Mustakhraj ‘ala’l-Saheeh. ‘Abd al-Razzaaq narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that “‘Umar prayed for rain in the prayer-place, and he said to al-‘Abbaas: ‘Get up and pray for rain.’ So al-‘Abbaas got up …” and he quoted the hadeeth. This was quoted by al-Haafiz in al-Fath and he did not comment on it.
Thus it is clear that the beseeching meant by ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) is du’aa’ by a righteous man. This is the correct kind of beseeching as prescribed in sharee’ah, and is indicated by a great deal of evidence. It was known at the time of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). If they were threatened with drought and there was no rain, they would ask the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to pray for them, and he would pray, then it would rain. There are many well-known ahaadeeth about this.
It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (1/153):
It is not permissible to supplicate Allaah (du’aa’) by virtue of the Messenger of Allaah or by virtue of any of the Sahaabah or anyone else, or by the life of anyone, because acts of worship are tawqeefi (i.e., we must adhere to what is prescribed in the Qur’aan and Sunnah and not worship Allaah in any way except that which has been prescribed). Beseeching Allaah in the manner described (in the question) has not been prescribed by Allaah, rather He has commanded His slaves to beseech Him by His names and attributes, by believing in His Oneness, by having faith in Him, and by virtue of one’s righteous deeds – not by virtue of the status of So and so or by his life. So we must limit ourselves to that which Allaah has prescribed. Hence it is known that beseeching Allaah by virtue of the status or life of So and so is an innovation that has been introduced into Islam.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: No one has the right to pride himself before Allaah on the righteousness of his forebears, for their righteousness is not part of his deeds for which he may deserve reward, as in the case of the three people in the cave. They did not beseech Allaah by the righteousness of their forebears, rather they beseeched Allaah by virtue of their own righteous deeds.
We ask Allaah to make us steadfast in adhering to His religion and His sharee’ah until we meet Him…
And Allaah knows best.
See: al-Tawassul Anwaa’uhu wa Ahkaamuhu by Shaykh al-Albaani, p. 55ff
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/153
Al-Tawassul ila Haqeeqah al-Tawassul by Shaykh Muhammad Naseeb al-Rifaa’i, p. 180.
A. Praise be to Allah.
al-Wali and al-Mawla are two of the names of Allah, because Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Or have they taken (for worship) Awliya (guardians, supporters, helpers, protectors, etc.) besides Him? But Allah, He Alone is the Wali (Protector, etc.). And it is He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things” [ash-Shoora 42:9]
“Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light” [al-Baqarah 2:257]
“And if they turn away, then know that Allah is your Mawla (Patron, Lord, Protector and Supporter, etc.), (what) an Excellent Mawla, and (what) an Excellent Helper!” [al-Anfaal 8:40]
“Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Mawla (Patron, Supporter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people” [al-Baqarah 2:286]
“Say: Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us. He is our Mawla (Lord, Helper and Protector)." And in Allah let the believers put their trust” [at-Tawbah 9:51].
And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
“You are its Guardian (Wali) and its Lord (Mawla).” Narrated by Muslim, 7081
See: Fayd al-Qadeer, 2/613; al-Qawaa’id al-Mathla, p. 15
It is permissible to call another person “mawlana” if he is Muslim, but it is not permissible to say that to a disbeliever.
Some of the scholars said that it is permissible to use the word mawla to refer to a Muslim who is distinguished in knowledge or righteousness.
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to Zayd ibn Haarithah: “You are our brother and our mawla.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2552
The word mawla may be used with reference to an owner, companion, relative, neighbour, ally, supporter, lover, benefactor, recipient of kindness, slave or freed slave. See: al-Qamoos al-Muheet.
Ibn al-Atheer said: The word mawla appears frequently in hadeeth. It is a word that may be applied to many things. It may refer to the Lord, the owner, the master, the benefactor, the freed slave, the supporter, the lover, the follower, the neighbour, the cousin, the ally, the son-in-law, the slave, the freed slave, and the recipient of kindness. It mostly appears in hadeeth and should be interpreted according to the context of the hadeeth in which it is mentioned. Everyone who is in charge of a matter or undertakes a matter may be described as its mawla or wali.
End quote from an-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb al-Hadeeth, 5/227
Hence there is nothing wrong with giving this name to a person so long as he is not a disbeliever.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Section: The dhimmi cannot be addressed as Sayyiduna etc
With regard to addressing (the dhimmi) as sayyiduna, mawlana and the like (titles roughly meaning “our master”), that is definitely haraam.
End quote from Ahkaam Ahl adh-Dhimmah, 2/771
An-Nawawi said: Imam Abu Ja‘far an-Nahhaas said in his book Sinaa‘at al-Kitaab: With regard to the word al-mawla, we do not know of any difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the fact that no one should say “mawlaya (my master)” to another person. But I say: We have seen in the previous chapter that it is permissible in all cases to say mawlaya and there is no difference between (the two forms of the word). an-Nahhaas was speaking of the word with the definite article (al-mawla). Similarly, an-Nahhaas said: The word sayyid may be said to anyone who is not an evildoer, but it should not be used with the definite article (as-sayyid) to refer to anyone other than Allah, may He be exalted. But the more correct view is that there is nothing wrong with saying al-mawla and as-sayyid (with the definite article, with reference to people) subject to the conditions mentioned above, i.e., a person may becalled as-sayyid (with the definite article) if he is a person of virtue and goodness, either because of his knowledge or his righteousness and so on. If he is an evildoer or there is some doubt concerning his religious commitment and the like, it is makrooh to call him sayyid.
End quote from al-Adhkaar, p. 840. See also Mu‘jam al-Manaahi al-Lafziyyah, p. 535
And Allah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
We do not know to whom we should address our answer. Should we speak to you, as you are the one who put this question to us, or should we address that girl with whom the Shaytaan is toying and causing her to say audacious things about Allah, may He be exalted, when He is giving her respite? She has not stopped at disbelieving in Him; rather she has gone further by trying to express her foolish ideas, that anyone with (sound) reasoning would not accept even if he was a disbeliever like her. And you – and here is the cause of the problem – are listening to her and you think that she said something worth asking about and are anxious to find an answer for her.
Whatever the case, we are concerned now for you, because she did not ask us and she is not a follower of our religion such that we could give her an answer on the basis of what we believe, although our answer will, in sha Allah, be appropriate to answer her too, if she is one of those among her people who possess reason.
You should know that the reason for this girl’s question is her ignorance of the Arabic language that we speak and, indeed, her ignorance of other languages.
The linguist Abul-Fath ibn Jinni said: Chapter on that in which knowledge of Arabic could ensure sound understanding of religious beliefs. It should be noted that this chapter is one of the most important chapters in this book and that the benefit thereof is very great indeed. That is because for most of the Muslims who went astray from the right path and drifted away from proper understanding, what caused them to go astray and go against what reason dictates is their weak understanding of this noble language through which all of mankind are addressed, and the ultimate fate of a person, whether in Paradise or Hell, is connected to understanding this language…. End quote.al-Khasaa’is, 3/248
It should be noted that one of the basic principles of communication is that everything is to be spoken of in such a way that it makes it stand out and distinguishes its gender. This is an ancient phenomenon in human languages, but there are some things that have nothing to do with real gender, as is the case with inanimate objects such as stones and mountains, and concepts such as justice and generosity, and so on. In these cases, masculinity and femininity are not applicable in the true sense of these two words. It seems that this is the reason why some languages divide nouns into three categories: masculine, feminine, and a third category which in Indo-European languages is called neuter; this refers to that which is neither masculine nor feminine.
But not all human languages have this category. Semitic languages, for example, divide nouns of the third category, which is neuter, between the first two categories. So nouns in these languages are all either masculine or feminine.
This is also the case in the French language, in which all nouns can only be either masculine or feminine. English differs from French in this regard.
See the Introduction by Dr. Ramadan ‘Abd at-Tawwaab (may Allah have mercy on him) to the book al-Bulghah fi’l-Mudhakkar wa’l-Mu’annath by Ibn al-Anbaari, 37-39
Now we know that dividing things into masculine and feminine – even in the case of that which cannot really be described as such – is the feature of most languages, especially living languages that are spoken now, and this is not something that is unique to Arabic. So now you know that if it is possible to describe anything as being either masculine or feminine, when it cannot be described as such in any real sense, then a language may prefer to speak of something in the masculine, as that is easier and it is the basic principle; there is no need to add any specific marker [such as an extra letter or syllable to indicate the feminine], as the feminine stems from the masculine.
The imam of the grammarians, Seebawayh (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It should be noted that the masculine form is easier for them to use than the feminine, because the masculine form is the original and is more established (in the language), and the feminine form is derived from the masculine. Do you not see that the word ash-shay’ (thing) is applicable to everything that we know about, regardless of whether it is masculine or feminine, and the word ash-shay’ is a masculine noun.
Kitaab Seebawayh, 1/22; see also 3/241
If the matter may be either of two things, but one of them is more likely than the other, even in one sense, it then becomes inevitable that the Lord should have the nobler and more sublime of the two. As-Sawaa’iq, 4/1308
Hence you will find that most of those who believe that there is a God above the heavens refer to Him in the masculine, which is more befitting to Him, may He be glorified. This is something natural that does not need any research, examination or evidence. You will not find anyone, knowledgeable or ignorant, monotheist or polytheist, who does not refer to God, may He be exalted, as “He”. If anyone were to refer to Him in the feminine, as this poor girl said, he would be opposed and accused of ignorance and clear misguidance.
So how about if we add to the above what Allah, may He be exalted, has said of Himself in His holy Book – and indeed in all the revealed Books – using that (masculine) pronoun.
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“It is He Who has created the heavens and the earth in truth, and on the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) He will say: "Be!", - and it shall become. His Word is the truth. His will be the dominion on the Day when the trumpet will be blown. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the All-Wise, Well-Aware (of all things).” [al-An‘aam 6:73]
“And He it is Who originates the creation, then will repeat it (after it has been perished), and this is easier for Him. His is the highest description (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but He, and there is nothing comparable unto Him) in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [ar-Room 30:27]
“It is He (Allah) Who is the only Ilah (God to be worshipped) in the heaven and the only Ilah (God to be worshipped) on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.” [az-Zukhruf 43:84].
And there are many similar verses, too many to list here.
Moreover, Allah, may He be exalted, criticised the mushrikeen (polytheists) for their claim to worship Allah, the One, the Subduer, yet they worshipped females besides Him, and He criticised them for that and explained how abhorrent their deeds were. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They (all those who worship others than Allah) invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah), and they invoke nothing but Shaitan (Satan), a persistent rebel!” [an-Nisa’ 4:117].
Imam at-Tabari (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Here Allah, may He be glorified, is saying: With regard to these people who associated others with Allah and worshipped idols and rivals, it is sufficient evidence against them of misguidance, disbelief and going astray from the right path, to note that they worshipped females and called them “gods” and “lords”, when the feminine of any thing is inferior, and they affirmed their servitude to that which is inferior of any thing, even though they knew that it was inferior, and they refused to devote sincere worship to the One Who is in control of all things and in Whose hand is the creation and the commandment.
Tafseer at-Tabari, 9/211, Mahmoud Shaakir edn.
Shaykh Ibn Sa‘di (may Allah have mercy on him) said: That is, these mushrikeen do not call upon and worship besides Allah anything but that which is feminine, namely idols and statues with feminine names, such as al-‘Uzza, Manaat and so on.
It is well known that the name is indicative of the thing that is named. If the names are feminine and inferior, that may point to some inferiority in the thing that is thus named, and they suggest that it is lacking attributes of perfection, as Allah has told us in more than one place in His book that they cannot create, provide or protect their worshippers, or even bring any benefit or ward off any harm from themselves, and they cannot defend themselves against anyone who wants to harm them; they cannot hear or see or understand. So how can the one that is like that be worshipped instead of the One to Whom belong the most beautiful names and sublime attributes such as praiseworthiness, perfection, glory, majesty, might, beauty, mercy, kindness, compassion, the unique power to create and control, and great wisdom in all that He commands and decrees?
Is that not the most abhorrent thing that is indicative of a person’s imperfection and reaching the lowest level of baseness that is worse than anyone could imagine or describe?
End quote from Tafseer as-Sa‘di, 203.
However, we would like to point out that Allah, may He be exalted, cannot be described as masculine or feminine in any true sense; rather that (use of the masculine pronoun) is necessary for the purpose of communication in human languages and what people need in communicating ideas about Allah. Everything that is either masculine or feminine is something that is created and Allah, may He be exalted, is the Creator of the masculine and feminine.
“And that He (Allah) creates the pairs, male and female” [al-Najm 53:45].
Exalted be Allah above having any rival or peer, spouse or child.
“He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife? He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.” [al-An ‘a am 6:101].
Allah tells us about the believers among the jinn that when they heard the Qur’aan, they believed in it and acknowledged their Lord, may He be glorified:
“And exalted be the Majesty of our Lord, He has taken neither a wife, nor a son (or offspring or children).” [al-Jinn 72:3].
What you have to do is tell her to look into her Scripture, if she believes that there is a God who sent a Messenger and revealed a Book to him; let her look in it and learn why.
If she burst with anger and her heart was filled with anger because she is female and Allah, may He be exalted, cannot be described in the feminine, then kufr in our times has reached such a level of craziness that you find a female wanting to stand up for her gender, on the basis of truth or falsehood, like the attitude of those who are ignorant and feel inadequate, so they try to compensate for that even on the basis of falsehood.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The one who defends himself on the basis of falsehood wants to defend everything he says, even if it is wrong. Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 10/292
If the ignorance and feeling of inadequacy has reached the level of likening Allah to His creation and even to the female of His creation, this is a state that even the ignorant Arabs in their worship of idols did not reach, for they knew that Allah, the Creator and Provider, was far greater than those idols and it was not befitting that He should be like them.
Beware of every ignorant heretic and remember that a person would follow the religion of his friend, so watch you make friends with.
“Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him!” [as-Saaffaat 37:180].
And Allah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
One of the things concerning which there is no doubt is that the Throne is above the seventh heaven; indeed it is the highest of all created things.
There is clear evidence that points to this:
It was narrated by al-Bukhaari (2581) that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “In Paradise there are one hundred levels that Allaah has prepared for the mujaahideen who strive for the sake of Allaah. (The distance) between each two levels is like the distance between the heavens and the earth. When you ask of Allaah, ask Him for al-Firdaws for it is in the middle of Paradise and is the highest part of Paradise. Above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful and from it spring forth the rivers of Paradise.
It is affirmed by all the Muslims that Paradise is above the seventh heaven, so if the Throne is above Paradise, then the Throne must also be above the seventh heaven.
This idea is further supported by the report narrated by Muslim in hisSaheeh (4136) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas who said: A man from among the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), one of the Ansaar, told me that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “… But when our Lord, may His name be blessed and exalted, decrees something, the bearers of the Throne glorify Him, then the people of the heaven that is closest to them glorify Him, until the tasbeeh reaches this lowest heaven (al-sama’ al-dunya). Then those who are closest to the bearers of the Throne say to the bearers of the Throne: ‘What did your Lord say?’ So they tell them what He said. Then the people of the heavens ask one another until the news reaches this lowest heaven.’” This very clearly indicates that the Throne and its bearers are above all the heavens.
Ibn Khuzaymah narrated in his Saheeh (9105) and in his Kitaab al-Tawheed(no. 594) that Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “Between the lowest heaven and the one above it is (a distance of) five hundred years, and between each heaven and the next is (a distance of) five hundred years marching.” According to another report: “The thickness of each heaven is a distance of five hundred years marching. Between the seventh heaven and the Footstool (al-Kursiy) is (a distance of) five hundred years. Between the Footstool and the water is (a distance of) five hundred years. The Throne is above the water and Allaah is above the Throne, and none of your deeds are concealed from Him.” It was classed as saheeh by al-Dhahabi in al-‘Alw (p. 64) and by Ibn al-Qayyim in Ijtimaa’ al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyah, p. 100.
Al-Dhahabi narrated in al-‘Alw (al-Mukhtasar, 35) that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr said: Allaah created the water above the seven heavens, and He created the Throne above the water.” Shaykh al-Albaani said: Its isnaad is saheeh.
The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) have stated that the Throne covers all of creation and is above it. Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Zaad al-Ma’aad (4/203):
The Throne is the roof of creation and the greatest of created things.
The same was stated by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 6/581, 25/1998.
It was also stated by Ibn Katheer in al-Badaayah wa’l-Nahaayah, 1/9, 11; and by Ibn Abi’l-‘Izz in Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah, 1/311.
See: Mukhtasar al-‘Alw by al-Dhahabi; al-Tawheed by Ibn Khuzaymah;Ijtimaa’ al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyah by Ibn Al-Qayyim.
Is it permissible to use the Beautiful Names of Allaah as a remedy, such as saying “Ya Baseer (O All-Seeing)” over the patient’s eye and so on?
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Using the names of Allaah as a remedy is a practice that is widespread among people. Flyers are widely distributed on which the names are written and beside them the diseases which may supposedly be treated by that name.
The one who claims to have discovered this kind of remedy is Dr Ibraaheem Kareem, the inventor of the science of “biogeometry”. He claimed that the beautiful names of Allaah have the power to heal a huge number of diseases, based on his research in which he measured energy levels in the human body. He claimed to have discovered that each of the names of Allaah produces an energy that prompts the immune system to work efficiently in a particular part of the human body. He claimed that by applying the “law of resonance” he could, simply by mentioning one of the names of Allaah, bring about improvements in the vital energy in the human body. After researching for three years, he presented his discovery to people in a schedule in which he described diseases and stated which name of Allaah could be beneficial in treating it.
For example: al-Samee’ (the All Hearing) can restore the balance of energy; al-Razzaaq (the Provider) can treat the stomach; al-Jabbaar (the Compeller) can treat the spine; al-Ra’oof (the Most Kind) can treat the colon; al-Naafi’ (the Bringer of benefits) can treat the bones; al-Hayy (the Ever-Living) can treat the kidneys; al-Badee’ (the Originator) can treat the hair; Jalla Jalaalahu (Glorified be His Majesty) can treat dandruff; al-Noor (the Light), al-Baseer (the All-Seeing) and al-Wahhaab (the Bestower) can treat the eyes. …
The way in which the remedy is administered is to repeat the name or a number of names over the affected part of the body, for ten minutes.
He claims to have discovered that healing energy is multiplied when reciting the verses of healing after reciting tasbeeh of the beautiful names of Allaah. These verses are (interpretation of the meaning):
“and heal the hearts of a believing people” [al-Tawbah 9:14]
“and a healing for that which is in your hearts” [Yoonus 10:57]
“wherein is healing for men” [al-Nahl 16:69]
“And We send down of the Qur’aan that which is a healing and a mercy” [al-Isra’ 17:82]
“And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me” [al-Shu’ara’ 26:80]
“Say: It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing” [Fussilat 41:44]
Our response to these claims is:
1. Remedies may be administered either by scientific means or by religious means (as described in the Qur’aan and Sunnah). With regard to scientific, physical means, treatment should be based on experience and expertise. With regard to religious means, reference is to be made to the texts of sharee’ah in order to find out what remedies are to be used and how they are to be administered. Mentioning Allaah by His beautiful names (dhikr) is something that is prescribed in sharee’ah, but this researcher does not quote any shar’i source of evidence for using specific names of Allaah in this manner to treat disease, so it cannot be a legitimate shar’i means of treating disease. Religious matters cannot be subjected to experimentation or disrespected in this manner.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said:
Note that medical treatment is a means of healing but the One Who causes it to be effective is Allaah, may He be exalted. There is no cause except that which Allaah makes a cause. The things that Allaah makes causes are of two types:
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 1, question no. 49.
2. This involves mentioning names of Allaah and claiming that He has called Himself by these names, when that is not the case, such as Jalla Jalaaluhu (Glorified be His Majesty), al-Rasheed (the Guide), al-Badee’ (the Originator), al-Naafi’ (the Bringer of Benefit), etc. This is indicative of the ignorance of the one who made this claim, and that this so-called energy does not exist, because it is derived – according to his own claims – from names that are not names of Allaah as proven in the saheeh evidence.
3. He describes a specific method of treatment and stipulates a name for each disease.
Even when a name mentioned is proven in saheeh evidence to be one of the names of Allaah, this still comes under the heading of speaking about Allaah without knowledge. Allaah has forbidden us to speak of Him without knowledge, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): (But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawaahish (great evil sins and every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allaah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allaah of which you have no knowledge” [al-A’raaf 7:33]
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his commentary on this verse:
“and saying things about Allaah of which you have no knowledge” means, with regard to His names, attributes, actions and laws. Tafseer al-Sa’di, p. 250.
4. The scholars of the Standing Committee refuted the claims of this man when they were asked about this matter. They said:
After studying the matter, the Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas replied as follows:
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do” [al-A’raaf 7:180]
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has ninety-nine names; whoever learns them will enter Paradise.” Among them is the greatest name of Allaah which, if He is called upon by it, He will respond, and if He is asked by it, He will give.
No one knows how many names Allaah has except Allaah Himself, and all of them are beautiful. We must believe in them and in the perfection, majesty and might of Allaah to which they point. It is haraam to disbelieve in them by rejecting all of them or any of them, or to deny the perfection of Allaah or any of the attributes of Allaah indicated by these names.
An example of denying the names of Allaah is the claim made by this “Kareem Sayyid” and his student and son in a flyer which they distributed among people, that the beautiful names of Allaah have the power to heal a huge number of diseases, based on his research in which he measured energy levels in the human body. He claimed to have discovered that each of the names of Allaah produces an energy that prompts the immune system to work efficiently in a particular part of the human body. He claimed that by applying the “law of resonance” he could, simply by mentioning one of the names of Allaah, bring about improvements in the vital energy in the human body. He said: it is well known that the Pharaohs were the first ones to study and measure the life force in the human body by means of [?] the Pharaonic pendulum. Then he mentioned a number of the names of Allaah in a schedule and claimed that each of these names could benefit the body in some way or treat specific physical diseases. He explained that by drawing a diagram of the human body and writing one of the names of Allaah on each part thereof.
This action is false because it is a kind of disbelief concerning the names of Allaah and it subjects them to degrading treatment. What is prescribed in Islam with regard to the names of Allaah is to call upon Him by them, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“… so call on Him by them …” [al-A’raaf 7:180]
Similarly we must affirm the attributes of Allaah implied by these names, because each of these names describes an attribute of Allaah and it is not permissible to use them for any other purpose than to call Him by them, unless there is shar’i evidence to that effect.
Whoever claims that they may be used in such and such a manner, or may be used to treat such and such a disease with no evidence to that effect from sharee’ah, is speaking about Allaah without knowledge, and Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): (But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawaahish (great evil sins and every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allaah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allaah of which you have no knowledge” [al-A’raaf 7:33]
This flyer must be destroyed, and the people mentioned here and others have to repent to Allaah from this action and not do any such thing again that has to do with ‘aqeedah and rulings of sharee’ah.
And Allaah is the Source of strength.
And Allaah knows best.
A. Praise be to Allaah.
Al-Bukhaari (2736) and Muslim (2677) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has ninety-nine names, one hundred less one. Whoever learns them will enter Paradise.”
Some of the scholars (such as Ibn Hazm – may Allaah have mercy on him) understood this hadeeth as meaning that the names of Allaah are limited to this number. See al-Muhalla, 1/51
But what Ibn Hazm said is not supported by the majority of scholars. Rather some of them (such as al-Nawawi) narrated that the scholars are agreed that the names of Allaah are not limited to this number. It seems that they regarded the view of Ibn Hazm as odd and as something that should not be paid any attention.
In support of the view that the beautiful names of Allaah are not limited to this number, they quoted the report narrated by Ahmad (3704) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no-one who is afflicted by distress and grief, and says: ‘Allaahumma inni ‘abduka ibn ‘abdika ibn amatija naasyati bi yadika, maada fiyya hukmuka, ‘adlun fiyya qadaa’uka. As’aluka bi kulli ismin huwa laka sammayta bihi nafsaka aw anzaltahu fi kitaabika aw ‘allamtahu ahadan min khalqika aw ista’tharta bihi fi ‘ilm il-ghayb ‘indaka an taj’al al-Qur’aana rabee’ qalbi wa noor sadri wa jalaa’ huzni wa dhihaab hammi (O Allaah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave, son of Your maidservant; my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every name belonging to You which You have named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You, that You make the Qur’aan the life of my heart and the light of my breast, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety),’ but Allaah will take away his distress and grief, and replace it with joy.” He was asked: “O Messenger of Allaah, should we learn this?” He said: “Of course; everyone who hears it should learn it.”
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 199.
The phrase “or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You” indicates that there are beautiful names of Allaah that He has kept with Him in the knowledge of the Unseen, and which none of His creation has come to know. This indicates that there are more than ninety-nine Names.
Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyah] said concerning this hadeeth in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (6/374):
This indicates that Allaah has more than ninety-nine names.
And he said (22/482):
Al-Khattaabi said: This indicates that He has names that He has preserved with Him, and that indicates that the words “Allaah has ninety-nine names, whoever learns them will enter Paradise” mean that there are ninety-nine of His names which whoever learns them will enter Paradise. This is like saying, “I have one thousand dirhams which I have prepared to give in charity,” even if his wealth is greater than that. In the Qur’aan Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them” [al-A’raaf 7:180]
Allaah has commanded us to call upon Him by His names in general terms, He did not say that He has only ninety-nine names.
Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) stated in Sharh Saheeh Muslimthat the scholars were unanimously agreed on that, and he said:
The scholars are unanimously agreed that this hadeeth does not mean that Allaah has only ninety-nine names, or that He does not have any other names apart from these ninety-nine. Rather what the hadeeth means is that whoever learns these ninety-nine will enter Paradise. The point is that one may enter Paradise by learning them, not that the number is limited to these names.
And Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen was asked about that and replied:
The names of Allaah are not limited to a certain number. The evidence for that is the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in the saheeh hadeeth: “O Allaah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave… I ask You by every name belonging to You which You have named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You.”
What Allaah has preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with Him cannot be known and what is not known is unlimited.
With regard to the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “Allaah has ninety-nine names, one hundred less one. Whoever learns them will enter Paradise,” this does not mean that He does not have any names apart from these, rather it means that whoever learns these ninety-nine of His names will enter Paradise. This is like when the Arabs say: “I have one hundred horses which I have prepared for the sake of Allaah,” which does not mean that the speaker has only these hundred horses, rather these hundred are prepared for this purpose.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 1/122.
A. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, All-Seer.” [al-Shoora 42:11].
There is nothing like unto Him, nothing that is equal or comparable to Him or that can rival Him. He is far above any resemblance to any created being. Whatever crosses the mind of the son of Adam with regard to his Lord, He is greater than that. No creature can encompass Him, may He be glorified and exalted, or imagine what He looks like. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“… and they will never encompass anything of His Knowledge.” [Ta-Ha 20:110]
The Muslim is not supposed to try to imagine or picture Allaah; rather, he has to believe in the sublime attributes which befit His Might and Majesty in which there is none like unto Him. Part of the ‘aqeedah (basic beliefs, creed) of the Muslims is that Allaah cannot be seen in this world, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“No vision can grasp Him” [al-An’aam 6:103]
But the believers will see Him in the Hereafter, in the gathering-place where judgement will be passed, and in Paradise. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was asked – as it was reported in SaheehMuslim – “Did you see your Lord?” He said, “I saw Light.” According to another report: “Light, how could I see Him?” This is in accordance with what Allaah said to Moosa in Soorat al-A’raaf (interpretation of the meaning):
“ ‘You cannot see Me’” i.e., in this world.
Neither the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم nor anybody else has seen Allaah with his own two eyes. In the Hereafter, when the people see Him in the place of gathering, they will fall down in prostration before His Might and Majesty. Seeing Him in Paradise will be the greatest of all the joys that the people of Paradise will experience.
You have to recognize Allaah by the Names and Attributes which He has told us about in His Book, and which His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم told us about. Do not occupy yourself with something that is beyond you; devote yourself instead to doing what your Lord has commanded you to do. Put aside these whispers from the Shaytaan, and may Allaah help you to do that which pleases Him.
Questions and Answers
A. The first obligation upon the slaves is to have recognition of the purpose for which Allaah created them; and for which He took a covenant from them and the purpose for which He sent them His Messengers and revealed His Books; and for which He created this present life, the Hereafter, Paradise and Hell-fire; and for which the Inevitable would come true; and the Event would befall; and for which the Scales are set up and the Records fly; and for which there would be either happiness or misery; and according to which the lights would be divided: “And whoever Allaah gives not light, there will be no light for him” (an-Noor: 40)
A‘laam As-Sunnah Al-Manshoorah li I’tiqaad At-Taaifah An-Naajiyah Al-Mansoorah
Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar
A. Because one who enters it submits (Aslama) himself to Allaah, and he surrenders to(Istislam), and abides by, all of the judgements that come from Allaah and from His Messenger Salallaahu alayhi wasallam. Allaah Almighty said:
And who turns away from the religion of Ibraheem except him who fools himself? [Baqarah 2:130]
He also said:
When His Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of all that exists." [Baqarah 2:131]
But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allaah and he is a good-doer then his reward is with his Lord [Baqarah 2:112]
Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts
Fatawa Islamiyah, vol.8, P.355 DARUSSALAM
A. The word 'Abd' means the subdued or subjugated. This meaning encompasses all the types of creation, higher and lower, rational and reasonless, animate and inanimate, dynamic and static, apparent and hidden, believing and disbelieving, and pious and sinning etc.. All of them are the creation of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. They are subjected to Him, controlled and managed by Him alone. All of them have a limit and destination and each one runs (its course) for an appointed term and does not exceed that term by an atoms worth,
“Such is the judgment of the Mighty, the all-Knowing” (YaaSeen: 38)
And if the intended sense is the worshipper, the one who loves Allaah, the one who is humble, then it refers only to the believing men and women who are Allaah's honourable slaves and those who are close to Him, who fear Him and have piety, they the ones who shall not fear, nor shall they grieve.
A‘laam As-Sunnah Al-Manshoorah li I’tiqaad At-Taaifah An-Naajiyah Al-Mansoorah
Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar
A. The shaikh said concerning this issue many times we find that many of the people making shirk concerning the angels of Allah (subhanna wa ta ala)or the awliyyah or the righteous people. The reason they do that is because these angels are in an exulted station in the hearts of the people. So the ignorant people, what they do is they take these creations of Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) and they raise them higher then the place that Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) has raised them. But the correct thing is we ourselves should put them where Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) has put them, in their proper place. We love them more than we love our ownselves. Like the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam), we love him more than we love our ownselves , more then we love our children, more than we love our money. We make the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) formost in our love and our minds. The shaikh said we respect him, but in doing this we do not attribute the special characteristics that are only for Allah (subhanna wa ta ala).
He said why, why ? The reason for this is that Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) is the one who sent the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) and the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) told us not to raise him higher than his ownself . One time some of the sahaba came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) and they said, “Ya Rasoolullah, ya khairoona, ya khairanna, ya sayidanna.”
“Oh Messenger of Allah, oh the best of us, oh our master.”
So the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) on hearing that the people were saying this or having this ghuloo /exaggeration said do not say all of what you are saying, say some of it but do not say all of it. Do not let the shaitan trick you people, say that “I am the Messenger of Allah only.” In another authentic hadeeth that has been collected by Imaam Muslim, he said to his companions and he said to us, “Do not exaggerate me as the Christians exaggerated in the son of Mariam (radia allahu anha), but say that I am Abdullah and the Messenger of Allah.” So the shaikh went on to say, therefore Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) described the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) to be an abd or a slave in the Qur’an. When he did so he did it to honour the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) with this description and all you have to do is read the Qur’an when Allah (subhanna wa ta ala) said,
“Glory be unto Allah who took his abd from Masjid al Haram to Masjid al Aqsa that we bless everything around it.”
So the point here is that Allah (subhaanahu wa ta`aalaa)who honoured his Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) honoured him by calling him the slave, and the servant here. Also the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) told us to say in our tashahud, when we are making salah to say, “Ashadu anna laillaha illallah wa ashadu anna Muhammed dur Rasool Allah.”
That we should bear witness to this kalama /testimony of faith, he said the sahabas did not say in their tashahud and “I bear witness that Muhammed is our sayyid ….. wa ashadu anna Muhammed sayyid anna.”
That the sahabas did not say this. So it becomes imperative that we also do not say this even though we respect that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam), yes he is our master and we should follow what he taught us and only what he taught us. So therefore, if a person was to say in his tashahud, what they are saying that Muhammed is our sayyid as well then he has gone against the sunnah and he has gone against the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi-wasallam) and on top of that he has claimed that by doing this thing that he is better than the sahaba because they did not say this and they did not do this thing.
Audio Tape: Aqueedah Comes First-By Shaikh Abdus Salam Burjis(rahimah ullaah)Article reference:AQD01004
5. What is the meaning of the testification that Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) is the Messenger of Allaah?
A. It is to have firm affirmation from the bottom of one’s heart, together in conformity with speech upon the tongue, that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger to all of mankind and the jinn, “…as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner. And as one who invites to Allaah by His Leave, and as a lamp spreading light.” (al-Ahzaab: 45,46)
So it is obligatory to affirm all that he mentioned regarding the past and future, all that he declared lawful or prohibited, with compliance and obedience to that which he ordered, and refraining and abstaining from all that he prohibited. Following his Sharee’ah, and clinging to his Sunnah in private and in public accompanied with pleasure with what he has decreed and submission to it. And knowing that obedience to him is in fact obedience to Allaah, and disobedience to him is disobedience to Allaah, as he is the Messenger sent by Allaah to convey His Message.
Allaah did not take his life until He perfected the deen through him. And he (sallallaahualaihi wasallam) conveyed the Message in a most perfect and complete way, and that he left his nation upon a clear white plain, no one deviates from it after him, except that he is destroyed. This topic will be discussed later, if Allaah wills.
A‘laam As-Sunnah Al-Manshoorah li I’tiqaad At-Taaifah An-Naajiyah Al-Mansoorah
Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar
Q: There is (one) here who is lack concerning the importance of aqeedah (creed) and he is of the opinion that eemaan (faith) is sufficient (for him). Do you have any clarification concerning the importance of aqeedah for the Muslim and how it reflects on his life, on his relationship with the (Muslim) society (as a whole) and with the non-Muslims?
A. In the name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. All praise is due to Allaah, the Lord of the all that exists. And may the peace and blessings be upon our Messenger Muhammad and upon his family and his companions. To proceed:
The correctness of aqeedah is the (most) fundamental principle. This is because bearing witness that Laa Ilaaha Illa Allaah Wa Anna Muhammaddan Rasool Allaah (there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is His Messenger), is the first pillar of Islaam. And the Messengers called firstly, to the correction of the aqeedah because all acts of worship and behavior depends on it and without the correct aqeedah, there is no benefit from (these) deeds. The Most High said: “But if they had joined in worship others with Allaah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.” - Al-An’am (6):88
And their deeds became invalid.
And Allaah (سبحانه وتعالى) said: “Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Dhaalimoon (polytheists and wrong-doers) there are no helpers.” - Al-Maa’idah (5):72
And the Most High said: “And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)), as it was to those (Allaah’s Messengers) before you: ‘If you join others in worship with Allaah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.’” - Az-Zumar (39):65
From these texts and other than them, it is clear that the correction of the aqeedah is from the important (affairs) and at the forefront of the da’wah. And the first (affair) to establish for the da’wah is the correction of aqeedah. And the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) remained in Makkah for thirteen years after his mission began, calling the people to the correction of the aqeedah and to at-Tawheed. And the faraa’id (obligatory acts of worship) were not revealed to him except in Madeenah.
Yes, and the salaat was made obligatory upon him in Makkah before the hijrah and the rest of the shar’iah was imposed on him after the hijrah. From this we have evidence that deeds are not accepted except after the correction of the aqeedah.
And this is for the one who says: That the eemaan is sufficient without having interest for the aqeedah.
This is contradictory because eemaan is not eemaan except if the aqeedah is correct. And if the aqeedah is not correct, then there is no eemaan, and (there is) no deen (religion).
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan
Fataawa as-Siyaasah ash-Shar'iyyah, Question 1
The people of innovation fall into the likes of what follows:
The Mu’attilah and the Mumathilah;
The Mumathilah are two groups;
The Hulooliyyah and the Karaamiyyah;
The Hulooliyyah: do so (tamtheel) in Allaahs Dhaat (Essence) The Karaamiyyah: do so in the Names and Attributes
So from the sects of the people of innovation are: the Jabariyyah and the Qadariyyah, and the Khawaarij and the Mu’tazilah and the Murji’ah and the Rawaafidh and the Jahmiyyah and the Ash’ariyyah.
It is obligatory upon the believer that he be balanced/on middle course between the Mu’attilah and the Mumathilah, and between the Khawaarij and the Murji’ah in the issue of Eemaan, and between the Mu’tazilah and the Murji’ah in the issue of the Wa’eed (threats), and between the Khawaarij and the Rawaafidh
Shaykh Hammaad al-Ansaaree
Al-Majmoo' fee tarjumah Hamaad Al-Ansaaree volume 2 page 481.
Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq
A. So the companions radhiyallaahu ‘anhum were the least of people to fall into Fitan(trials) in comparison to those who came after them. For as time moved on from after the period of Prophethood – the splitting and differing increased. Therefore during the khilaafah of ‘Uthmaan no open innovation made itself manifest, but when he (‘Uthmaan) was killed, the people then split and there appeared two innovations that were at opposites of each other:
Then at the period when the last of the companions were alive, during the rule of Ibn Az-Zubair and ‘Abdul-Malik, there appeared the innovation of:
Then at the first period of the Taabi’oon – towards the end of the rule of the Umayyads, there appeared the innovation of:
Whilst there was never anything of that kind during the times of the companions.
Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, volume 6, page 231
Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq
Q. Is the Messenger, sallallaahu 'alaihi wassallam, present and to to found in every place? And did he know the affairs of the Unseen?
A. It is known in the Religion by necessity, and by the evidences of the legislation (sharee'ah), that the Messenger of Allaah, may the salutations and peace of Allaah be upon him, is not present (or to be found) in every location. Indeed his body is in his grave only in al-Madeenah al-Munawara. As for his soul, then it is in the highest company in Paradise. And that which is evidence for that is what is established from him, sallallaahu 'alaihi wassallam, that he said:
"O Allaah, (place me) in the highest company" (Al-Bukhaaree, Chapter of Battles, 4437. Muslim, Chapter of the Excellence of the Companions, 87-2444)
He said this three times and then passed away. Indeed, the Scholars of Islaam, from the Companions and those who followed them, have agreed by concensus ('ijmaa), that the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alaihi wassallam, was buried in the house of A'isha (radhi Allaahu anhaa), which was next to the Sacred Mosque (in Madeenah). And his body has not ceased to remain there thoughout history. As for his soul and the souls of the rest of the Prophets and Messengers and the Believers, then all of them are in Paradise, in lofty stations and levels in accordance to that which Allaah has specified for them due to their knowledge, faith (eemaan) and patience upon undertaking hardships in the path of calling to the truth.As for the unseen, then noone knows it except for Allaah alone.
That which was known by the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) and other than him from the creation of the unseen matters, it was that which Allaah had informed him of, from that which is found in the Noble Qur'aan and the Pure Authentic Sunnah - from the explantions/clarifications of the affairs of Paradise, Hellfire and Judgement Day and other than that, from that which is indicated in the Qur'aan and authentic ahadeeth, such as news regarding the Great Liar/Anti-Christ (Ad-Dajjaal), the Sun rising from the West, the emergence of the Beast of the earth, the descent of 'Eesaa ibn Maryam close to the Hour (Judgement Day), and that which resembles it, due to the statement of Allaah:
"Say: None in the Heavens and the Earth knows the Ghaib (Unseen) except Allaah, nor can they perceive when they shall be resurrected." (An-Naml:65)
And His, The Most High, statement:
"Say,(O Muhammad): I do not say to you that with me are the treasures of Allaah, nor that I know the Unseen.." (Al-An'aam:50)
And the statement of Allaah in Sooratul-A'raaf:
"Say, (O Muhammad): I have no power of benefit nor (avert) harm for myeslf except as Allaah wills. If I had knowledge of the Unseen (Ghaib), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe." (Al-A'raaf: 188)
And the ayaat with this meaning are many. And it established authentically upon the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam), in narrations that show that he did not have knowledge of the Unseen. From that is what is established in his (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) response to (the Angel) Jibreel when he asked (the Messenger of Allaah):
"When is the Hour?" He (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) said: "The one being questioned knows no better than the questioner."
He (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) also said: "Regarding five (matters), none knows them except Allaah", then he (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) recited:
"Verily, Allaah! With Him alone is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in which land he will die. Veril Allaah is All-Knower, All-Aware." (Luqmaan:34)
[Al-Bukhaaree, Chapter of Eemaan (50). Muslim, Chapter of Eemaan (9), fromthe hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah).
And from that is also the incident of the accusations of lewdness from the slanderers of A'isha (radhi Allaahu 'anhaa), when he (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) did not know her innocence (from the lies against A'isha) until the Aayah was revealed in Soorah an-Noor. And also when the necklace of A'isha (radhi Allaahu 'anhaa) was lost in one of the battles and he (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) did not know its whereabouts, and he sent a group to go and search for it, but they were not able to find it - and when her camel stood up, they found it under it. And this is just a few from many Prophetic narrations that are to be found with this meaning.
As for that which some of the People think from his (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) knowing the Unseen matters and him (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) being present in front of them on the occassion of the celebration of his (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) [so-called] birthday and other than that, then this is something false with no foundation or [textual] origin to it. And this is something by way of their ignorance of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and that which the Righteous Predecessors were upon. So we ask Allaah for ourselves and for all Muslims goodness from that which they are tried/afflicted with, just as we ask Him, the Most Perfect, that He guides us and them altogether, to His Straight Path - indeed He is the Hearer and One who responds (to those who supplicate to Him).
Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
"Al-Mujaahid" (66) / Second year - 2 issues 33 and 34 - Muharram/Safar 1412AH
Translated by Abu Khadeejah
Questions and Answers
1. What is the ruling on seeking help from the dead, such as saying, "Madad (Give me help and strength), O so-and-so!", or seeking help from the living who are absent and do not hear the one calling for their help?
if one calls upon a dead person for help saying: "Madad (Give me help and strength), O so-and-so!", they must be advised and warned that this is Haram (prohibited); it is even an act of Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship). A person who insists on doing this is considered a Mushrik (one who associates others in worship with Allah) and a Kafir (disbeliever), because they are asking someone other than Allah to do something that no one is able to do except Allah. Thus, they have attributed to the creatures a right that solely belongs to Allah. Allah, Exalted be He, says (what means): Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allâh, then Allâh has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5: 72).
Seeking help and strength from the living who are absent is also impermissible, because it is supplication to other than Allah and asking for what Allah alone can do. This is also considered Shirk, as Allah the Exalted says (what means): So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord. (Surah Al-Kahf, 18: 110). Calling upon the absent living is a form of worship. A person who does so should be advised. If they do not accept the advice, they are considered Mushriks outside the fold of Islam.
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
2. My father believes in the righteousness of a dead shaykh known as a Waliy (a pious person). He makes Tawassul (supplicating to Allah through a means) by this shaykh and associates him with Allah in Du`a' (supplication), for example, he says: "O Allah! O master Abdul-Salam!" ……..What is the ruling on this, taking into account that my father performs Salah (Prayer), observes Sawm (Fast) and, pays Zakah (obligatory charity)?
A. Making Du`a' to the dead and the absent like the Prophets, Awliya' (pious people), and the like, whether alone or along with Allah, is an act of Al-Shirk-ul-Akbar (major form of associating others in worship with Allah), even if a person observes Sawm, performs Salah, and pays Zakah because Allah (Glorified be He) says: "And invoke not besides Allâh, any such that will neither profit you nor harm you, but if (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers). Also Allah (Glorified be He) says: Such is Allâh, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmîr (the thin membrane over the date-stone). If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call; and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) like Him Who is the All-Knower (of everything).
There are many Ayahs (Qur'anic verses) to this effect.
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
Q. Allah (Exalted be He) says (what means): And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh, so call on Him by them How can Allah be supplicated to by His Most Beautiful Names; should He be supplicated to by ten of His Names or more, or can it be just by the Name befitting the reason for the Du‘a’ (supplication)?
A: It is lawful to supplicate to Allah and seek to draw close to Him by His Most Beautiful Names, as Allah (Exalted be He) says: And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh, so call on Him by them
Imam Ahmad reported a Hadith narrated by Ibn Mas‘ud, that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, Narrated by Imam Ahmad, Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 391 and 452.“There is no servant who, when stricken by distress and grief, says: ‘O Allah! I am Your servant, son of Your servant, son of Your maidservant; my forelock is in Your hand, Your Decree over me is forever executed and Your Judgment over me is just. I ask You by every Name belonging to You which You have named Yourself with, revealed in Your Book, You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You, that You make the Qur’an the spring of my heart and the light of my breast, and the dispeller of my sorrow and the remover of my distress),’ but Allah, the Exalted and the Glorious, will surely remove his distress, and replace his grief with joy.” He (peace be upon him) was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Should we learn these words?” He said, “Yes, anyone who hears them should learn them.”
The supplicant may beseech Allah by any of His Most Beautiful Names with which He named Himself or His Messenger (peace be upon him) named Him with. It is preferable to choose the Name that best suits what is being asked for, for example: “O Helper! Help me;” “O Most Merciful! Have mercy upon me;” or “O Lord! Forgive me and have mercy upon me, verily, You are the One Who accepts Tawbah (repentance), the Most Merciful.”
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
4. Some people vow to give Sadaqah (voluntary charity) or offer a sacrifice to attain what they want; some in hope of recovery, others of restoring a lost right, and so on. Some devote their vows to Allah sincerely or for the sake of Allah's Love, others offer the vow to other people. Please, advise me on this matter and clarify the correct way of offering a vow. May Allah admit you to the best of life and Hereafter.
Vowing is an undesirable act for a Muslim, for it is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A vow is not a means of bringing good but a means to extract good from the miserly people. But in case that someone makes a vow to do some obedience to Allah, they should fulfill it, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: Whoever vows that he will be obedient to Allah, should remain obedient to Him; and whoever makes a vow that he will disobey Allah, should not disobey Him. (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
Offering vows to anyone other than Allah is Shirk-Akbar (major form of associating others in worship with Allah), for it is an act of `Ibadah (worship) and offering `Ibadah to anyone other than Allah is Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship).
5. What is the effect of jinn (creatures created from fire) on humans or humans on jinn and the effects of the evil eye on the envied person?
A. The effect of jinn on humans and humans on jinn and the effects of the evil eye on the envied person are well-known facts. But all these things happen by Allah's Kawny (universal) Will and Decree, not by His Shar`y (legislative) Will [i.e., He wills that it should happen but He does not enjoin it and He is not pleased by such actions]. As for the effects of the envier on the envied person, it is a fact known to people. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The effects of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye. He (peace be upon him) also said: There is no Ruqyah (reciting Qur'an and supplicating over the sick seeking healing) better than that which is said as a treatment for an evil eye or (a sting of) a venomous animal. There are many Hadiths in this regard. We ask Allah to protect and keep us firm with the truth.
May Allah grant us all success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
6. What is the ruling on carrying pocket-sized copies of the Mus-haf (copy of the Qur'an) for protection against envy or the evil eye on the grounds that they provide protection or prevent harm? What is the ruling if they are put in the car to prevent accidents? The second question is: What is the ruling on wearing an amulet which contains Ayahs (Qur'anic verses) of the Qur'an for protection against envy or the evil eye or for seeking success or recovering from illness or magic spells or other purposes? The third question is: What is the ruling on wearing gold necklaces which contain Ruqyah (a piece of paper with some Qur'anic verses and supplications written on it) for protection from harm?
A. Allah (Glorified be He) revealed the Qur'an so that people could practice its recitation as an act of `Ibadah (worship), contemplate its meaning, know its rulings and thereby act upon them. This way the Qur'an serves as an admonition and a reminder with which the hearts of the believers soften and their skins shiver with fear. It dispels ignorance, protects against misguidance, purges the souls from the filths of Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) and wipes clean sins and shortcomings. Allah (Glorified be He) makes it a guidance and a mercy for whoever opens his heart to it or listens to it while they are heedful. Allah (Exalted be He) says: O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i.e. the Qur’ân, enjoining all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences) which is in your breasts, - a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things) for the believers. Allah (Exalted be He) also says: Allâh has sent down the Best Statement, a Book (this Qur’ân), its parts resembling each other (in goodness and truth) (and) oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allâh. That is the guidance of Allâh. He guides therewith whom He wills; and whomever Allâh sends astray, for him there is no guide.
Moreover, Allah (Exalted be He) says: Verily, therein is indeed a reminder for him who has a heart or gives ear while he is heedful. Allah (Glorified be He) revealed the Qur'an as a miracle and a clear-cut proof testifying to the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) who was sent as a mercy to all mankind and to convey the Message of Islam to them. Allah (Exalted be He) says: And they say: "Why are not signs sent down to him from his Lord? Say: "The signs are only with Allâh, and I am only a plain warner. Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’ân) which is recited to them? Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder (or an admonition) for a people who believe. Allah (Exalted be He) also says: These are the Verses of the Clear Book (the Qur’ân that makes clear the legal and illegal things, laws, a guidance and a blessing). Furthermore, Allah says: These are the Verses of the Book (the Qur’ân) Al-Hakîm. In addition to many other Ayahs.
The Qur'an, this magnificent miracle, is a book which contains legal rulings and irrefutable proofs through which Allah supported His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him). It is authentically reported that the Messenger of Allah used to recite Ruqyah (reciting Qur'an and saying supplications over the sick seeking healing) upon himself. He used to recite the last three Surahs of the Qur'an known as Al-Mu`awidhat Al-Thalath (Surahs Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falaq and Al-Nas). It is also authentically reported that he permitted Ruqyah by reciting the Qur'an and saying Du`a' (supplication) as long as it does not contain any act of Shirk. He approved the Ruqyahs (supplications read over the sick for seeking healing) performed by his Sahabah (Companions) and permitted the wages they took for reciting Ruqyahs. `Awf ibn Malik narrated that he said: We used to practice incantation in the pre-Islamic period and we said: "O' Allah's Messenger, what is your opinion about that"? He said: "Let me know your incantation" and said: "There is no harm in the incantation as long as it's not Shirk". (Related by Muslim in his Sahih 'authentic' Book of Hadith). Abu Sa`id Al-Khudry (may Allah be pleased with him) also narrated: Some Sahabah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) went on a journey till they reached some of the Arab tribes (at night). They asked the latter to accept them as their guests but they refused. The chief of that tribe was then bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and they tried their best to cure him but in vain. Some of them said (to the others), "Nothing has benefited him, will you go to the people who resided here at night, it may be that some of them might possess something (as treatment)." They went to the group of the Sahabah and said, "Our chief has been bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and we have tried everything but he has not benefited. Have you got anything (useful)?" One of them replied, "Yes, by Allah! I can recite a Ruqyah, but as you have refused to accept us as your guests, I will not recite the Ruqyah for you unless you fix for us some wages for it." They agreed to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them then went and recited (Surah Al-Fatihah): 'All the praises are for the Lord of the Worlds' over the chief who became well, as if he was released from a chain, and got up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness. They paid them what they had agreed to pay. Some of them (i.e. the companions) then suggested dividing their earnings among themselves, but the one who performed the recitation said, "Do not divide them till we go to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and narrate the whole story to him, and wait for his order." So, they went to Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) and narrated the story. Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) asked, "How did you come to know that Surah Al-Fatihah is recited as Ruqyah?" Then he added, "You have done the right thing. Divide (what you have earned) and assign a share for me as well." The Prophet (peace be upon him) smiled thereupon.
(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim). `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated that she said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) went to bed every night, he would cup his hands together and blow over them while reciting Surah Al-Ikhlas and Mu`awidhatayn (Surahs Al-Falaq and Al-Nas). He would then rub his hands over whatever parts of his body he could reach. `Aishah said: When he fell ill, he would ask me to do it for him. (Related by Al-Bukhari). `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) also narrated: The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to treat some of his wives by passing his right hand over the place of ailment and used to say: "O Allah, the Lord of the people! Remove the trouble and heal the patient, for You are the Healer. No healing is of any avail but Yours; healing that will leave behind no ailment". (Related by Al-Bukhari). There are many other Hadiths to the effect that the Prophet himself performed Ruqyahs by reciting the Qur'an or saying Du`a'. It was also reported that he (peace be upon him) permitted Ruqyahs as long as it was not Shirk. However, it was not reported that he (peace be upon him) ever wore a Qur'anic amulet or put it on one of his Sahabah to protect him from envy or evil. He (peace be upon him) was also not reported to have hung anything of the sort on his clothes or taken it with him while on a journey in order to protect himself from the evil of his enemies, to seek victory over them or to facilitate his journey and such other things which are meant to provide benefit or prevent harm. Had such practices been permissible, he would not only have observed them, but also informed his Ummah (nation) about them.
This is because Allah says: O Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. Had he done any of these things, his Sahabah would have passed it down to us since they are the best to adhere to the Prophet's Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet), they are very careful in conveying, clarifying and preserving Shari`ah (Islamic law). However, none of the Prophet's Sahabah were recorded to have done this, which indicates the impermissibility of carrying pocket-sized copies of the Qur'an or putting them in a car, a safe or in one's belongings for safety or protection from envy. Similarly, it is not permissible to have a Qur'anic amulet or a gold or silver necklace containing words of the Qur'an to be worn around one's neck. Such practices contradict the guidance brought by the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and his Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them all). The prohibition of these practices is implied in the general purpose of the Hadith which states: If one ties an amulet, Allah will not accomplish his affairs for him ... Musnad Ahmad Vol.4: pg 154 In another narration the Prophet stated: Whoever wears an amulet commits an act of Shirk. Musnad Ahmad Vol.4: pg 156 (These two Hadiths are related by Imam Ahmad). The prohibition is further implied in the Hadith in which the Prophet said: Spells, charms and love-potions are Shirk. Book of medicine Abu dawud 3883 and Ibn Majah 3530 Although the Prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited all types of amulets, he did not prohibit the types of Ruqyah which are free from formulas of Shirk. This view was held by `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas, a group of the Sahabah and Tabi`un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet) like Ibrahim ibn Yazid Al-Nakh`y and other disciples of `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud.
Other scholars have maintained that it is permissible to wear amulets containing Ayahs of the Qur'an or the Names and Attributes of Allah for the purpose of seeking protection. They exclude this from the prohibition implied in the Prophet's Hadith on amulets as Shirk-free Ruqyahs were not prohibited by the Prophet. The Qur'an is the word of Allah which is one of His Attributes. There is no harm if Qur'anic amulets are designed to be put in a person's garments or hung around their neck in the belief that they bring blessings and benefit. This view is attributed to some scholars including `Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al-`As. However, the narration attributed to him in this regard is not authentic because Muhammad ibn Is-haq, who is notorious for Tadlis (misrepresentation), falls in the Sanad (chain of narrators) of this Hadith. Even if the authenticity of the narration was proven, no indication can be inferred on the permissibility of wearing amulets. The Hadith only indicates that `Abdullah was teaching the Qur'an to children and was writing it on tablets which he would hang around necks of younger ones. It is more likely that he did that so that they could repeat the Qur'an over and over for the sake of memorization. It does not appear that his intention was to protect them from envy or to ward off harm from them. This practice does not fall under the scope of prohibited amulets. In his book entitled 'Fath Al-Majid', Shaykh `Abdul-Rahman ibn Hasan preferred the same view held by `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud and his disciples on the prohibition of all types of amulets whether containing Ayahs of the Qur'an or anything else. According to him this is the preponderant opinion for three reasons:First: There is no evidence to specify the general prohibition of all amulets. Second: The prohibition is preferable as it prevents wearing other objects that fall outside the scope of amulets. Third: There is possibility that the amulet gets spoilt while a person is wearing it if they happen to relieve themselves or to make Istinja' (cleansing the private parts with water after urination or defecation). Allah knows best.
A. This is impermissible and is tantamount to Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship). Ruku‘ is a form of worship, just like Sujud (prostration); therefore, it is impermissible to bow or prostrate before anyone other than Allah the Exalted.
8. What is the ruling on swearing by anyone or anything other than Allah? Is it Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) or not?
A. Swearing by anyone or anything other than Allah, whether it is an angel, a prophet, a waliy (pious person) or any other creature, is forbidden. It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) found
`Umar ibn Al-Khattab amongst the riders and he was swearing by his father. Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) called them (saying): "Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has forbidden you that you take oath by your father. Whoever wants to swear should swear by Allah or keep silent." Ibn 'Umar reported another narration where the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If anybody has to take an oath, he should swear only by Allah. The people of Quraysh used to swear by their fathers. The Prophet said: Do not swear by your fathers. (Related by Muslim and others). The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade swearing by others than Allah. Prohibition means forbiddance. Moreover, it was reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) called it Shirk. `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: He who swears by anything other than Allah is committing an act of Shirk. (Related by Ahmad with an authentic Sanad "chain of narrators", and Al-Tirmidhy, who considered it to be Hasan "a Hadith whose chain of narration contains a narrator with weak exactitude, but is free from eccentricity or blemish", and Al-Hakim , who considered it to be a Sahih "a Hadith that has been transmitted by people known for their uprightness and exactitude; free from eccentricity and blemish"). It was reported on the authority of Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: He who swears by anyone other than Allah is a disbeliever or a Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in worship). Scholars considered it to be Al-Shirk-ul-Asghar (minor form of associating others in worship with Allah) and said that this is a minor form of Al-Kufr Al-Akbar (major form of disbelief) that drives one away from Islam. Therefore, it is one of the most grievous major sins. Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "It would be better for me to falsely swear by Allah than to swear by anyone other than Allah." This is also backed up by what was reported by Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whoever amongst you swears, (mistakenly) in his oath 'By Al-Lat and Al-‘Uzza', then he should say, La ilaha illa Allah 'there is no deity but Allah'. And whoever says to his companions, 'Come let me gamble with you', then he must give something in charity (as an expiation for such a sin). (Related by Muslim and others). The Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded Muslims who swore by Al-Lat and Al-'Uzza to say La ilaha illa Allah. Swearing by anyone other than Allah contradicts the perfection of Tawhid (Oneness of Allah). Moreover, it also includes glorifying someone other than Allah with attributes that are due only to Allah as oaths. Some Hadiths that contain swearing by fathers were reported before that prohibition was revealed as it was used by Arabs in Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance).
9. What is the ruling on whoever transports a Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in worship) to shrines or to attend banquets? Are they also Mushrik? Or are they sinners who commit a sin unwillingly especially if they are ordered to do so by their father or mother and if they do not comply parents will get angry?
A. It is not permissible to transport any one who intends to visit these shrines or to attend a banquet that is prepared for that shrine. Doing so is tantamount to committing a sin as this is a kind of cooperation in evil and aggression even though those who want to go there are one's parents. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "There is no obedience to a creature in defiance to the Creator."
10. When a baby is born, the father calls one of the shaykhs to foretell the newborn's future through signs of zodiac and consult on its name. If a suggested name suits the baby's future, the shaykh will be silent, otherwise he will ask for it to be changed, and it often happens that people here end up with multiple names. It is authentically related that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered some offensive names to be changed; if a name is not offensive, is it permissible to change it?
It is not permissible to foretell the future; it is regarded a type of soothsaying. It is also not permissible to change a name if it does not suit predictions, as this involves believing in soothsaying and what soothsayers do.
It is permissible to change offensive names, following the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him). There is also no harm in changing them even if they are not offensive, if it is not connected with its suitability for a child's future or any other similar reason, provided that it does not lead to the loss of anyone's rights.