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YOGA AND REIKI IN THE SIGHT OF ISLAM


Yoga and Reiki goes against the fundamentals of Islamic Tawheed. It contradicts the teachings of Islam. Islam prohibits all things which goes against the teachings of Allah and his Messenger whether in intention, words or actions.

 

Table of Contents

 

Definition of Shirk

Shirk particularly implies associating partners in action or name and attributes or worship along with Allah سبحانه و تعالى or to believe that the source of power, harm or blessings is from others besides Allah سبحانه و تعالى

 

Shirk can be broken down into three categories

Shirk in Ruboobeeyah: opposing or contradicting in maintaining the oneness of lordship.

 

Shirk in Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat: opposing or contradicting in maintaining the unity of Allah's Names and Attributes.

 

Shirk in Al Ebaadah: opposing or contradicting in affirming Allah Alone in his right to be Worshipped.

[a]For more details on SHIRK: click here, http://www.askislampedia.com/wiki/-/wiki/English_wiki/Shirk

 

Yoga

Yoga means ‘union’ or ‘connection’ with God, or, union of the little, ego-self with the divine Self, the infinite Spirit.Etymologically, it is connected to the English word, yoke. Hindu discipline aimed at training the consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility that is achieved through the three paths of actions and knowledge and devotion. A system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind). [1] [2]

 

Yoga (Sanskrit: योग,) refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. In Hinduism, it also refers to one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy, and to the goal toward which that school directs its practices Yoga–derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, to join, to unite, to attach. The English word yoke is cognate with the Sanskrit word yoga. We can think of yoga as the joining of the atma with the paramatma, the soul with God. There are numerous means of joining with God: through action, karma-yoga; through knowledge, jnana-yoga; through devotion, bhakti-yoga; through meditation, dhyana-yoga, etc. Yoga has many other meaning. For example, in astronomy and astrology it refers to a conjunction (union) of planets. [a]

 

“Yoga in the sacred Indian language means union and contact with God, i.e., union between the body, the mind and God which helps man attain knowledge and wisdom and develops his thought by developing his knowledge of life; it protects him from sectarianism, religious fanaticism, narrowmindedness and shortsightedness when searching; it makes him live a life of contentment both physically and spiritually.” In the book al-Yoga wa’l-Tanaffus (yoga and breathing) by Muhammad ‘Abd al-Fattaah Faheem (p. 19) [3]

 

5 principle meanings of Yoga

"Yoga has five principal meanings:

1) Yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal;

2) Yoga as techniques of controlling the body and the mind;

3) Yoga as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana);

4) Yoga in connection with other words, such as hatha-, mantra-, and laya-, referring to traditions specializing in particular techniques of yoga;

5) Yoga as the goal of yoga practice. For "yoga" as derived from the Sanskrit root "yuj" with meanings of "to control", "to yoke, or "to unite"

 

In Hindu literature, the term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad, where it refers to control of the senses and the cessation of mental activity leading to a supreme state.

The yoga exercises start with the first state which constitutes a bowing to the worshipped, i.e. the sun. These exercises must be accompanied by a number of words and phrases, which state clearly the worshipping of the sun and the orientation towards it. This is called (Mantra). It is said in a soft voice and regular tone and pitch. These expressions include the 12 names of the sun and here are some of the things they say:
Aum Mitraya Namah which means: I bow my head for you O! Friend of everyone.
Aum Ravaye Namah which means: I bow my head for you who is glorified by everybody.
Aum Suryaya Namah meaning: I bow my head for you O! Guider of everyone.
Aum Marichaye Namah meaning: I bow my head for you O! Forcer of the disease out.
Aum Savitre Namah meaning: I bow my head for you O! Giver of life.
Aum Bhaskaraya Namah meaning: I bow my head for you O! Source of light.
Aum Pushne Namah meaning: I bow my head for you O! Provider of Nutrition.

Some of them add other expressions like: Um Hram, Um Hraim, Um Hrum, …etc.
(Aum Hram Mitraya Namah.
Aum Hreem Ravaye Namah.
Aum Hroom Suryaya Namah
Aum Hraim Bhanave Namah.
Aum Hroum Khagaya Namah.
Aum Hrahaha Pushne Namah.
Aum Hram Hiranyagarbhaya Namah.
Aum Hreem Marichaye Namh.
Aum Hroom Adityaya Namah.
Aum Hraim Savitre Namah.
Aum Hroum Arkaya Namah.
Aum Hrahaha Bhaskaraya Namah.)
This means: O! God. So, yoga is not a kind of sport, it is rather an atheist form of worship that the Muslim should not indulge in under any circumstances.

 

Hadith

Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Pray the Morning Prayer and then abstain from prayer until sunrise and the sun has completely risen, for it rises between the horns of Satan. That is when the unbelievers prostrate to it." Sahih Al-Bukhaari 3272 (Vol 4: 494)

So, since it is forbidden to perform the prayer at sunset or sunrise to avoid imitating the disbelievers, then doing some other practices that disbelievers devote themselves to also fall in the same category. [a]

 

The Goal of Yoga

The goal of yoga may range from improving health to achieving MOKSHA. Within the monist school of Advaita Vedanta and Shaivism the goal of yoga takes the form of Moksha, which is liberation from all worldly sufferings and the cycle of birth and death SAMSARE at which point there is a realization of identity with Supreme Brahman. In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma, as Brahman or as perceiving the Brahman or Atman that pervades all things.For the bhakti school of Vaishnavism, Bhakti or service to Svayam bhagavan itself may be the ultimate goal of the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu.

 

The purposes of Hindu Yoga aims at achieving mystical union with the ultimate reality namely Brahma ,where part of its practices involve breathing exercise. Even if the term nirvana is really the influence of Hindu’s wahdat al-wujud (oneness of existence; the realization of identity between the Self in man, Atman; and the Divine, BRAHMAN: ‘Brahman is all, and Atman is Brahman), This truth can clearly be observed as when we study what is the ultimate goal of the asana yoga and the importance of its breathing practice Seeing yoga closely, it is beyond doubt that yoga is a yoke to unite individual soul with universal One. The very meaning of yoga is the Union of the Personal Spirit of God. The original meaning of yoga is ‘kok’ or tying. Yoga is a discipline for an individual unification with universal soul. Yoga contains certain religiousrituals aiming at educating and  the disciplining soul. Those who practice it claim that there is a spiritual contact between them and some hidden spirits in which they themselves believe.

 

Indeed Hinduism is a wahdat al-wujud (oneness of existence) religion.This fact alone is sufficed to demonstrate that of yoga is the teaching of Hinduism which opposes the basics Islam. Among the objective of the yoga philosophy is to achieve peace and health of mind and body. Bhagavad Gita is the one of Hinduism’s sacred book and the main source of the teaching of yoga. [4]

 

The philosophy of Orthodox Hindu and Theravada Buddhism. They has to practice yoga which include self exile in caves, forest and reject all kinds of worldly temptations. It is like vacuuming your mind of all kinds of desires. In their eyes the ideal person is yogi who use all kinds of strength to eliminate the differences between self and objects, indifference to all objects completely. The most suggested meditation when you want to practice yoga is to concentrate on a dot of light. There are also other methods which are physical in nature such as to concentrate your eyes looking at your own nose, or on an idea of yours or the existence of your God. All the scattered ideas or intentions were neatly organized focuses to the very one. Indeed yoga claims the utmost happiness which are incomparable. [a]

 

Qur’an

In fact, the true tranquility of the soul and its purity are attained by following the Sunnah and adhering to it as well as remembering Allah سبحانه و تعالى in the way He mentioned in His Book and in the books of Sunnah. Allah سبحانه و تعالى says (interpretation of meaning): {… Verily, in the remembrance of Allah سبحانه و تعالى do hearts find rest.} Qur’an.Surah Rad 13:28

 

Yoga is a ‘kok’ or ‘joining’ to unite the individual soul with Universal soul. (Atman with Brahma). It is a unification of Individual Soul with God that makes it relevant. In Hinduism the unification of one’s soul might take place in life time. They call God Brahma: Atman unites with Brahma. Indirectly and unconsciously, yoga exercise will lead Muslims to apostate and accept Hindu’s wahdat al-wujud (oneness of existence) doctrine.

 

Islamically, Yoga falls into the categories of shirk

Yoga falls into shirk, it beliefs are seeking to unite the soul with God or as the yogis call it the supreme consciousness. This is shirk in Tawheed ar Ruboobeeyah by opposing or contradicting in maintaining the oneness of lordship. A person might ask how they are negating the belief in God since they teach a belief in a god. It is not like Buddhism which in its teachings neglect to mention whether there is a god or outright denial. But yoga is just as guilty of shirk by negation. They believe that Allah سبحانه و تعالى can become part of the creation itself. When a person makes such a statement what this really means is that there is no God. For example: one with Allah سبحانه و تعالى then he is not superior to anything and therefore cannot be God. God be definition is the greatest and most superior to all things.

 

This is part of Tawheed ar Ruboobeeyah. A person must believe that Allah سبحانه و تعالى is superior otherwise how could the person believe in Tawheed ar Ruboobeeyah oneness of lordship? So yoga is an act of shirk in regards to Allah’s lordship by negation of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. This is shirk in Tawheed ar Ruboobeeyah lordship because it says that you can unite with God. You can become one with God. Therefore those who are advanced within that religion would be seen as equals to Allah سبحانه و تعالى or as they call it, the supreme consciousness.

 

Yoga is also shirk of Tawheed al Asmaa was-Sifaat names and attributes of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. Yoga belief that a person can unify with the supreme consciousness or in other words unite with God is basically saying that a person can obtain the attributes of God. Therefore they are given the characteristics of the creator to themselves. It indicates that becoming one with the greater power which they call the supreme consciousness. This is attributing to a human being what only is for Allah سبحانه و تعالى. So for the Muslim to imitate the Hindu practice of yoga even though he does it for exercise it is an act of shirk.Islam is unique from other religions, it rejects all forms of shirk which lead to corruption whether it is Shirk by words or Actions.
 

In Arabic the term Ibadah comes from the root word meaning slave. To imitate a people and trying to be like another people is like being a slave to your own desires Qur’an Surah 25:43 Have you (O Muhammad ﷺ)seen him who has taken as his Ilah (god) his own vain desire? Would you then be Wakil (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?
In this Ayah it is said that some people take their desires as a god. To imitate a people would mean that you are following your desires and allowing them to rule your life. Your desires would then rule how you act and how you dress. Literally by imitation the person has become a slave to their desires and is considered to be worshipping their desires. Imitation is therefore an act of shirk in worship of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. [a]

 

Reiki

Reiki is a spiritual practice developed in 1922 by Mikao Usui. After three weeks of fasting and meditating on Mount Kurama, in Japan, Usui claimed to receive the ability of "healing without energy depletion" A portion of the practice, Tenohira or palm healing, is used as a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Tenohira is a technique whereby practitioners believe they are moving "healing energy" (a form of ki) through the palms.

 

Derivation of Name

Japanese reiki 霊気"mysterious atmosphere; spiritual power" is a loanword from Chinese lingqi 靈氣, which some Chinese-English dictionaries translate: "(of beautiful mountains) spiritual influence or atmosphere"; "①intelligence; power of understanding ②supernatural power or force in fairy tales; miraculous power or force";①spiritual influence (of mountains/etc.) ②ingeniousness; cleverness". This Japanese compound joins rei 霊"ghost, spirit, soul; supernatural, miraculous, divine; ethereal body" and ki 気"gas, air; breath; energy; force; atmosphere; mood; intention; emotion; attention", here meaning qi "spiritual energy; vital energy; life force; energy of life". Some reiki translation equivalents from Japanese-English dictionaries are: "feeling of mystery", "an atmosphere (feeling) of mystery", and "an ethereal atmosphere (that prevails in the sacred precincts of a shrine); (feel, sense) a spiritual (divine) presence.

 

" English reiki or Reiki transliterates a Japanese loanword. Reiki is syntactically used as a noun (referring to either "the putative energy" or "the therapeutic method based upon it"), a verb, or an adjective. Some Western authors loosely translate reiki as "universal life energy". This coinage partially mistranslates: ki means "life energy" — rei does not mean "universal". [a]

 

Origin

Mikao Usui (臼井甕男) originated Reiki in 1922 after a twenty-one day retreat on Mount Kurama, involving meditation, fasting, and prayer. Usui said that by mystical revelation he had gained the knowledge and spiritual power to apply and attune others to what is called Reiki


In April 1922, Usui moved to Tokyo and founded the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai (Usui Reiki Healing Society) Usui was an admirer of the literary works of Emperor Meiji, and, in the process of developing his Reiki system, summarised some of the emperor's works into a set of ethical principles, which later became known as the Reiki Principles.("GOKAI" in Japanese) Many Reiki teachers and practitioners aim to abide by these five principles, one translation of which is:
"The secret method of inviting good fortune.”
The marvelous medicine for all sickness
Just for today: Do not be angry do not worry be grateful work with integrity be kind to others.

 

Every morning and every night, sit in the Gassho position [hands held palm-to-palm] and speak these words out loud in your heart. For the evolution of body and soul, Usui Reiki Ryoho" — Mikao Usui, the founder.
Usui taught over 2000 students to use Reiki. Sixteen of his students continued their training to reach the Shinpiden level, equivalent to the Western third degree, or master level. Usui died in 1926. [5]

 

The Reiki system does not attribute its healing power to God. A Muslim must believe that the healing comes from Allah سبحانه و تعالىalone.As prophet Ibrahim attributed the healing towards Allah سبحانه و تعالىAnd when I am ill, it is He who cures meQur’an.Surah Shuara 26:80 This is how we are supposed to think, Even if the whole of humanity were to gather to try and harm you, they would not be able to do it unless Allah سبحانه و تعالىhad already destined for that thing to occur and vise versa. So if a Muslim believes that a healing is coming about by some mystical power then they have denied that the will of Allah سبحانه و تعالىis supreme.

 

If one believe that everything ultimately come from Allah سبحانه و تعالىand also belief in mystical super powers In assuming that this system has power over the creation it goes against Tawheed ar Ruboobeeyah -  maintaining the oneness of Allah’s lordship. What the person is doing is establishing a partner to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. Instead of asking Allah سبحانه و تعالى for help and healing the person has deviated and is using a system under which they feel they can heal the person with a mystical force. So this force has become a subtle form of idolatry. They have given Allah سبحانه و تعالىa partner. Even if they believe that this mystic force is lesser than Allah سبحانه و تعالىthis is still shirk by association and is no different than many religions that have greater and lesser gods.

 

If Allah سبحانه و تعالى is the lord over all things then we should turn to him for help. That doesn’t mean that we avoid medical treatment because as we know it is the Sunnah of the prophet to try to cure your sicknesses. It is fine to try and heal yourself and others using medications or methods by which is prescribed by Allah سبحانه و تعالى. But when it comes to use of spiritual or religion rituals then this is clear shirk.

 

This also is shirk by negation because it does not indicate the existence of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. Therefore since it does not indicate that Allah سبحانه و تعالىexists subliminally they are suggesting that it is not important whether he exists or doesn’t exist. These are all philosophies which commit shirk by negation because they do not specify a belief in God. Therefore Reiki is shirk of Allah’s Lordship.

 

Regarding shirk in worship of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, Reiki is a clear example of that. The ProphetMuhammadﷺindicated in a hadith that the Christians and Jews had taken their leaders(Rabbis) as gods and used to worship them because the leaders made halal things haram and haram things halal and the people had blindly followed their rulings. Classed as Hasan by Sheikh Albani in Sahih at Tirmidhi 3095 (for details check Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Surah Taubah or Bara’ah 9:31)Since we know that magic is haram then anyone who follows a person who says that it is halal has committed shirk by worshipping that person.

 

Reiki is clearly a form of magic. Magic in Islam is forbidden and the punishments are strict for those who offend this commandment. Usui however has made these rituals of magic something that is halal. So if a Muslim is following these teachings then it is shirk. They have worshiped that person instead of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. [a]

 

Reiki is similar to yoga, it is based on what they call 'Universal life force energy'. They claim that this force runs freely through every living thing when one is healthy, positive and well. However, during particularly stressful periods in our lives, the tension we experience slows down or restricts this energy flow in various parts of our body adversely affecting our health. The role of the practitioner is to direct the healing energy to the body in order to cure the patient.

 

In contrast, the cure is not certain at 100%. Furthermore, it is known that believing in this universal life force energy which runs through every living being and that it heals and affects our health is disbelief, because when believing so, one is attributing the dominion of this universe and life to other than Allaah. Allaah says (which means): {And whatever you have of favour, it is from Allaah.}Qur'an Surah Nahl 16:53 [6]

 

Quran

Allah سبحانه و تعالىsaid: Have you (OMuhammed ﷺ) seen him who has taken as his illah (god) his own vain desire? Would you then be Wakil (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him? Qur’an.Surah 25:43 The majority of people practices Reiki do so out of intrigue and desire for it. This is their main motivating factor since there is no proof to support it. Of course it is natural to be curious of the unknown but those who practice Reiki have a love for it. This is clear shirk because they do not have love for Allah سبحانه و تعالىand have taken for a god something in this life that they love. As per Allah’s statement in the previous ayah quoted this is classified as shirk.

 

Another proof that loving something more than Allah سبحانه و تعالىis shirk can be found in Allah’s statement Allah سبحانه و تعالىSaid: And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others beside Allah سبحانه و تعالىas rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah سبحانه و تعالى. But those who believe, love Allah سبحانه و تعالىmore (then anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah سبحانه و تعالىand that Allah سبحانه و تعالى is Severe in punishment. Qur’an.Surah Baqarah 2:165

 

If those who practice Reiki were to have some calamity strike them so that fear were to enter their heart they would probably not even think about their supposed healing powers to save them. They would automatically and naturally call out to Allah سبحانه و تعالى for help. They would reject their beliefs and embrace Tawheed.

 

Allah سبحانه و تعالىsaid: Say: ( O Muhammed ﷺ: Tell me if Allah’s Torment come upon you, or the Hour comes upon you, would you then call upon any one other then Allah? (Reply) if you are truthful” Quran.Surah Anam 6:40

 

Reiki is appealing to another power other than Allah سبحانه و تعالى but when some horrible disaster comes they would only appeal to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. This is proof that they commit shirk in the worship of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.
Allah سبحانه و تعالىsaid: Yet they worship, besides Allah, things for which no authority has been sent down to them, and of which they have (really) no knowledge: for those that do wrong there is no helper. Quran.Surah Hajj 22:71

 

In the previously quoted ayah Reiki is a perfect example of those who worship besides Allah سبحانه و تعالى. No authority has come down to them to heal in this manner and they have no knowledge regarding this matter. Since this is the case it is an innovation. [a]

 

MISCONCEPTION

Q. Yoga is just a form of Excerise?

Answer 1:

Yoga is not simply a physical exercise, it is rather a form of worship to the sun instead of Allaah. Collins defines yoga as: 'A Hindu system of philosophy aiming at the mystical union of the self with the Supreme Being:- a state of complete awareness and tranquility through certain physical and mental exercises'. It is widespread and well known in India since early ages. The original name of this sport in Sanskrit is (Sastanga Soria Namaskar) which means "prostrating for the sun on eight places of the body". This sport has 10 known states among which the fifth stage where the person lays face down on earth touching the ground with his: both hands, the nose, the chest, both knees and the toes. By this one realizes prostrating for the sun on eight organs of the body.

The yoga exercises start with the first state which constitutes a bowing to the worshipped, i.e. the sun. These exercises must be accompanied by a number of words and phrases, which state clearly the worshipping of the sun and the orientation towards it. This is called (Mantra). It is said in a soft voice and regular tone and pitch. These expressions include the 12 names of the sun and here are some of the things they say:

1) Mitraya Nama which means: I bow my head for you O! Friend of everyone.

2) Rafayer Nama which means: I bow my head for you who is glorified by everybody.

3) Suria Nama meaning: I bow my head for you O! Guider of everyone.

4) Maritchay Nama meaning: I bow my head for you O! Forcer of the disease out.

5) Safitir Nama meaning: I bow my head for you O! Giver of life.

6) Bhasakaria Nama meaning: I bow my head for you O! Source of light.

 

Some of them add other expressions like:

Um Hram, Um Hraim, Um Hrum, …etc. This means: O! God.

When the Muslims say: Allaahu Akbar and the Hindus used to say: Um Hram (seeking Help from their idol). Longman dictionary defines "Mantra" as "a word or sound that is repeated as a prayer or to help people Meditate in the Hindu or Buddhist religion".

 

So, we conclude that yoga is not a kind of sport, it is rather an atheist form of worship that the Muslim should not indulge in under any circumstances. Some might wonder: what if the person practices the physical exercises without facing the sun or repeating the mentioned expressions? The answer is: "If this sport becomes free of atheist expressions and free of facing the sun, bowing for it and greeting it, it is no longer yoga. It becomes some simple physical exercises practiced by all people and there is no harm to practice it provided two things are met:

First, re-ordering the exercises in a way different than the one in yoga and introducing some new situations in it to avoid similarity with yoga.

Second, avoiding practising these exercises in the times the Hindus observe it like at sunrise. The evidence for these two conditions is the narration in which the Prophet Muhammad ﷺsaid: "Pray the Morning Prayer and then abstain from prayer until sunrise and the sun has completely risen, for it rises between the horns of Satan. That is when the unbelievers prostrate to it." Sahih Al-Bukhaari 3272 (Vol 4: 494)

 

So, since it is forbidden to perform the prayer at sunset or sunrise to avoid imitating the disbelievers, then doing some other practices that disbelievers devote themselves to do at fixed times is more entitled to be done in different times. Know also that what some people advertise that yoga brings tranquility and calm is not peculiar to yoga. It is general to anyone who keeps on repeating innovative, polytheist expressions or words with the presence of mind and the concentration on something like a picture.

 

The scholars mention that the devils land on these people filling their minds and hearts with imaginations and illusions, making them feel a false tranquility which some followers of innovative ways and forms of worship, publicize.

 

In fact, the true tranquility of the soul and its purity are attained by following the Sunnah and adhering to it as well as remembering Allaah in the way He mentioned in His Book and in the books of Sunnah. Allaah says (interpretation of meaning): Verily, in the remembrance of Allaah do hearts find rest. Quran Surah Rad 13:28 [7]

 

Answer2:

In the definition of Yoga we see that it means union, i.e., union of man with the spirit, which is the universal spirit, by which they mean God. Hence the aim of this practice is to be a way of combining all other religions.

 

Dr Ahmad Shalabi – who is a specialist in the religions of India – says: 

“The union of Buddha with the Hindu gods is nothing but a return to belief in ‘Jnana Yoga’ i.e., the ‘path of knowledge’ which sees truth in all religions and philosophies. But this truth is only a particle of the greater, complete truth. This school of thought does not object to any religion or philosophy; it thinks that any religion or philosophy is not everything and is not the whole truth. The one who believes in this way of thinking does not belong to any religion or school of thought, because he regards the followers of all different religions as his brothers, no matter how they differ. So Jnana Yoga is a way that encompasses all beliefs and refuses to be restricted by any of them. We should highlight the fact that propagating and promoting this way of thinking is aimed at fighting Islam indirectly. I have seen these attempts in several countries. Islam is the force that defeated both Christian and Buddhist missionaries, so if they can manage to divert people in one way or another – even in the name of Jnana Yoga that encompasses all beliefs and does not restrict itself to any one of them – that is a great victory for them. After they have managed to divert the Muslim from Islam at the end of this smart trick, then it is possible to make him doubt and then pull him into another sphere. So let the Muslim beware of Yoga and its trickery and those who promote it.” Adyaan al-Hind al-Kubra, p. 174 [8]

 

References

[a] http://whatsonnn.blogspot.in/2009/05/reiki-and-yoga.html

Written by Mobeen Mujaddady, Student of IOU under Dr. Bilal Philips

 

[1] http://www.ananda.org/meditation/free-meditation-support/articles/what-is-yoga/

[2] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Yogas

[3] http://islamqa.info/en/101591

[4] http://www.saskatoonsportscouncil.ca/yoga?tmpl=component&print=1

[5] http://www.xpandhealth.com/Articles.asp?ID=153

[6] http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=89819

[7] http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=85297

[8] http://islamqa.info/en/101591

 

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