PROPHET MUHAMMAD ﷺ - MERCY UPON NON-MUSLIMS
Anyone who learns about the prophetic message finds that it maintained human dignity and raised his status, as human beings, whether Muslims or not, all are the offspring of Adam. Islam not only gave non-Muslims freedom to retain their religion, but it also allowed them to practice their ceremonies and preserved their places of worship. The Prophet ﷺprevented his companions from disturbing Christian clergymen in their hermitages, and he never assaulted a non-Muslim place of worship. His companions, and the caliphs after him, understood this meaning very well; so, they recommended their military leaders not to seize or demolish their places of worship. Also, Islam gave them the freedom to follow their laws related to marriage, divorce, and the like.
Hence, all people have rights as human beings before Allah the Almighty. Yet, they, before Allah, are distinguished by fearing their Lord, having faith, and adopting good morals. Moreover, Muhammad ﷺwas consistent in showing this clearly in his behavior and dealing with non-Muslims.
Allah the Almighty honored all humanity by saying, “We have honored the sons of Adam, provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favors, above a great part of Our creation“. Quran surah Al-Israa, 17: 70
Prophet Muhammad ﷺdid not come to deprive those who did not follow him of freedom. Instead, he treated them with a rare form of tolerance. The following are some of the most important principles of Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺtreatment of non-Muslims: Although Prophet Muhammad ﷺand his companions believed that it is right to adopt Islam - as it is the seal of the previous messages - they never tried to force any one to adopt Islam. The Noble Qur’an highlighted this meaning clearly by saying: “There is no compulsion in religion as truth stands out clear from error”. (Al-Baqarah, 2: 256)
Prophet Muhammad ﷺreceived the revelation and applied it in the greatest manner, as he was ordered to be just with all people without looking to their status, race, religion or ancestry. They were all equal, even if the person who had a certain right was unfair to the Muslims; he would still be given his right. The Noble Qur’an ordered the Messenger ﷺto rule fairly if Ahl al-Kitab (i.e. the Jews and the Christians) choose him as an arbitrator, “If you judge, judge in equity between them” Quran Surah Al-Maida, 5: 42. In more than thirty traditions, Prophet Muhammad ﷺemphasized the right of al-Mu’ahad (the one who has a covenant with the Muslims), among which is the following: “Whoever killed a person having a treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years”. Sahih Al-Bukhari 6914He also says, “Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracting man, or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him (the victimized) on the Day of Judgment.” Abu Dawud 3052 and authenticated by Al-Albani He also says, “If anyone kills a man whom he grants protection prematurely, Allah will forbid him to enter Paradise.” Aḥmad 19864 and Abu Dawud 2760 and authenticated by Al-AlbaniMuhammad ﷺprohibited torturing anyone, even if he did not adopt Islam.
Therefore, he ﷺforbade torturing any human being whether Muslim or non-Muslim. He says, “Allah the Almighty tortures those who torture people in this life”. Sahih Muslim 2613 Muhammad ﷺalso preserved and guaranteed the security of non-Muslims’ lives, wealth and honor in the Islamic community. So, no one is permitted to hurt them whether Muslim or not, as long as they residents of Islamic territories. 
It was narrated that ‘Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said to the Prophet, peace be upon him: "have you ever come across a day harder than the day of Uhod (one of the battles with the polytheists, in which Muslims were defeated failing to comply with the Prophet's instructions)?" he replied: "I have suffered from your people a lot. The hardest i suffered was on the day of Akaba (a place name). I brought out my message to abdYaleil Bin AbdKalal.
He did Not respond positively to what i called him for. I left there with a grief-stricken face. I did Not wake up from that feeling, until i was near Karn-ath-tha-aleb (a place name). I raised my head, where i found a cloud casting its shadow over me. Upon looking, I saw Jibril (the angel) into it. He called upon me:Allah (the almighty) has heard the saying of your people, and what kind of reply they gave to you. Allah has sent the angel of the mountains for you ready to do with them whatever you ask. The angel of the mountains called, and saluted me saying: "oh Muhammad, what i do will be as you request. if you want, i close the two mountains on them?" the Prophet, peace be upon him, replied: "instead of that, i am hoping that Allah (the al mighty) will create from their offspring people who worship Allah alone, without ascribing partners unto him". Sahih Al Bukhari: 3231
It was narrated that Ibn-Omar (the son of omar), may Allah be pleased with both of them, said that after one of the battles of the Prophet pbuh, a woman was found killed. In response, the Prophet pbuh prohibited the killing of women and children. Sahih Al Bukhari: 3014
Anas-Bin-Malek, may Allah be pleased with him, said:A jewish youth who served the Prophet, peace be upon him, became ill, and the Prophet paid him a visit. The Prophet, peace be upon him, sat near the youth's head, and he spoke to him saying: "embrace Islam". The youth averted his eyes towards his father, who was also beside him. The father told his son: "Obey Abal-Kassem (one of the common names of the Prophet pbuh)". The youth embraced Islam (before dying), and the Prophet, peace be upon him, went out saying: "thanks to Allah (the almighty) who rescued him from hell fire." Sahih Al Bukhari: 1356
Abdullah Ibn-Amr, may Allah be pleased with both, reported thatthe Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
"He who kills a promisor (a Non-Muslim living among Muslims where he is promised to have protection, and he promises Not to help enemies against Muslims, hence, he is called 'a promisor'), will Not smell the fragrance of paradise, though its fragrance is recognizable from a distance of forty years." Sahih Al Bukhari:3166
Boraida-Bin-Al-Hosaib reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, delegated a prince to lead an army or a small army, he advised him, and Muslims with him, to be devoted to Allah, and to act to the common good. Then, he said: "your battle should be in the name ofAllah, and for his sake. fight disbelievers. Fight, but don't Exaggerate, don't cheat, don't mutilate, don't kill a new-born child. If you meet your enemies of polytheists call them for one of three options.
Whatever they take, you must accept, and stop fighting them. Call them to Islam. If they take it, accept, and stop fighting them. Then call them to transfer from their home to the home of immigrants (Al Madina, or Hijra house, where all Muslims, at the start of Islam gathered).
Tell them if they do so, they will have the same rights and duties of the immigrants. If, however, their choice was Not to transfer from home, their status will be the same as the MuslimBedouins (away in the desert), by the command of Allah Not having the right for spoils or almsgiving unless they join holy war (jihad) beside other Muslims. if they refused (Islam) ask them to pay the tribute (tax taken from Non-Muslims for protection). If they gave a positive reply, accept that, and stop fighting them. if they refused, seek the help of Allah, and fight them. If you lay a siege around a fortress, and they ask to have the warranty of Allah and the warranty of his Messenger, do not give them the warranty of Allah and the warranty of his Messenger. But give them your warranty and the warranty of your companions. Observing your warranty and the warranty of your companions will be easier than observing the warranty of Allah and the warranty of his Messenger.
If you lay a siege around a fortress, and its people ask to be brought down to the judgment of Allah, don't bring them down to the judgment of Allah. But, bring them down to your own judgment, since; you never know whether your judgment will be the same as the right judgment ofAllah about them or Not." Sahih Muslim: 1731
Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, delegated some horsemen to a place called Najd. The horsemen captured a man from the tribe of Bani-Hanifa called Thomama-Bin-Athal. They tied the captive to one of the posts in the Mosque.The Prophet, peace be upon him, came out to him saying: "how do you find yourself Thomama?"Thomama replied: "good, Muhammad. if you kill me, you shed (retaliatory) blood. If you pardon me, you do a favour to an appreciative person. If you are seeking money, ask whatever amount you want." He was left until the nExt day. The Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him the same question (the next day), and he replied "the same like yesterday, if you pardon me, you do a favour to an appreciative person". the third day, the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him the same question, and the captive gave the same reply.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said" "set Thomama free!".Thomama went to a place near the Mosque where he washed (did ablution; wudu’), and came back to the Mosque giving the testimony "I bear witness that there is No God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah". Then, he added: "I swear by Allah, that on earth No face was more hateful to me than your face. Now, your face is the one i love most. I swear by Allah, your religion was the one i disliked most. Now, it is the religion i like most. I swear by Allah, your city was the worst place for me. Now, it is your city which i like most. Your horsemen took me, when i was going for Omra (a smaller pilgrimage out of the Normal time of Haj that was also practiced by polytheists before Islam imitating the moNotheist religion of abraham, pbuh). So, what is your decision?" the Prophet, peace be upon him, anNounced him and ordered him to go for Omra. When he went to Makkah, somebody there said to him: "you have changed your religion!" (a shameful accusation for them) "No." He replied, "buti joined Islam with Muhammad, peace be upon him. from Now on, you will Not receive even one grain of wheat from (my land) Al-Yamama, unless by the permission of the Prophet, peace be upon him." Sahih Al Bukhari: 4372
Sahel-Bin-Saad-As-sa’edi, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that he heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying on the day of kheibar battle:
"I will give the flag to the man that Allah brings victory through him" the companions stood up to see which of them will be given the flag. then, he said: "where is ali?" he was given the answer that ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was suffering from pain in his eyes. He called ali, supplicated Allah (the almighty) for Ali's cure, spitting in Ali's eyes. Ali was cured on the spot, as if he suffered No pain. Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "we fight them until they are (Muslims) like us"? the Prophet, peace be upon him, replied "wait until you are on their land. Then, call them to Islam, and tell them their duties, i swear, that if Allah guided even a single man through you, will be better for you than getting the most Expensive livestock." Sahih Al Bukhari: 4210, and Sahih Muslim:2406
It was reported that Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet,peace be upon him, was asked to invoke Allah (the almighty) against polytheists. He replied: "i was Not sent out for cursing, i was sent out as a mercy" Sahih Muslim 6284
It was reported that Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "I called my mother for Islam, when she was still a polytheist. One day, upon calling her, she said to me words about the Prophet,peace be upon him that i hate. I went to the Prophet,peace be upon him, crying. i said: "Messenger of Allah! i was calling my mother to Islam, but she was refusing. today, i called her, but she said to me words about you that i hate. supplicate that Allah (the almighty) guide mother of Abu Huraira to Islam". At that the Prophet,peace be upon him, said: "Oh Allah! i call upon you to guide the mother of Abu Huraira". I went out very happy at the supplication of the Prophet,peace be upon him. Going back home, when i was near the door, my mother heard my steps. "Stay where you are Abu Huraira!" she shouted. I heard the sound of pouring water. Then, after washing, dressing, and putting on her veil, she opened the door, and said: "Abu Huraira, i bear witness that there is No God but Allah, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is his slave and his Messenger" i went back to the Prophet,peace be upon him, crying this time out of joy, and i said to him: "oh Messenger of Allah! i have the good news that Allah (the almighty) responded to your supplication, and guided the mother of abuhuraira". the Prophet,peace be upon him, thanked Allah, and praised him, and said good words. then, i said: "oh, Messenger of Allah! supplicate Allah that his slaves and believers love both me and my mother, and make us love believers. The Prophet,peace be upon him, said: "oh Allah! i call upon you to make this little slave of yours – he means Abu Huraira – and his mother, beloved to your slaves and believers, and make your slaves and believers beloved to them." No believer on earth who heard of me or saw me, but he loved me". Sahih Muslim: 2491
It was reported that Abu Huraira(R), may Allah be pleased with him, said: "Tofail-Bin-Amr-Ad-Dawsi and his companions, came to the Prophet,peace be upon him, and said: "Messenger of Allah! daws (a tribe name) disobeyed and revolted against us, invoke Allah (the almighty) against them. Thinking that the Prophet pbuh would do that, the people said: "aws has perished". the Prophet,peace be upon him, said: "oh Allah! I call upon you to favour Daws with your guidance, and bring them". Sahih Al-Bukhari: 2937
Later from the tribe of DAWS people accepted Islam and one among them was ABU HURAIRA(R) , who narrated thousands of ahadees on the authority of prophet Muhammad(S)
It was reported that Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "Tofail-Bin-Amr-Ad-Dawsi and his companions, came to the Prophet,peace be upon him, and said: "Messenger of Allah! daws (a tribe name) disobeyed and revolted against us, invoke Allah (the almighty) against them. Thinking that the Prophet pbuh would do that, the people said: "aws has perished". the Prophet,peace be upon him, said: "oh Allah! i call upon you to favour awas with your guidance, and bring them". Narrated by Bukhari
Later from the tribe of DAWS people accepted Islam and one among them was ABU HURAIRA(R) , who narrated thousands of ahadees on the authority of prophet Muhammad (S)