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ORIYA


Oriya language, Indo-Aryan language with some 32 million speakers. A language officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the Indian constitution, it is also the main official language of the Indian state of Orissa. The language has several dialects; Mughalbandi (Coastal Oriya) is the standard dialect and the language of education.

 

Oriya has been heavily influenced by the Dravidian languages as well as Arabic, Persian, and English. Its lexicon has been enriched by borrowings from these languages as well as from Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Turkish, French, Portuguese, and Sanskrit. Words borrowed from Sanskrit occur in two forms: tatsama (close to the original form) and tadbhava (remote from the original form).

 

Table of Contents

 

History

Oldest of the eastern group of the Indo-Aryan family, Oriya is derived from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Oriya arguably dates back to the 10th century ce, though it was almost indistinguishable from Bengali until the 11th century. The first poetic classic was composed in the 15th century, and literary prose began to take shape in the 18th century.

 

In Oriya inscriptions from between the 12th and the 14th century, word order is relatively free, and verb–object sequence (with the subject before or after) is not infrequent. Other historical changes include the loss of some plural markers and some postpositions. The indirect speech, relative clauses, and passive constructions found in English have emerged in Oriya, although these are considered nonstandard forms. New discursive forms such as the essay and news reporting and analysis have also come to Oriya from English. Scholarly speech and writing still remain fairly Sanskritized, however.

 

Origin

The Oriya script developed from the Kalinga script, one of the many descendents of the Brahmi script of ancient India. The earliest known inscription in the Oriya language, in the Kalinga script, dates from 1051.

 

The curved appearance of the Oriya script is a result of the practice of writing on palm leaves, which have a tendency to tear if you use too many straight lines.

 

Notable features

  • Type of writing system: syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to, are used to change the inherent vowel.
  • When they appear the the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters.
  • When certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used which combine the essential parts of each letter.
  • Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines.

Oriya language on websites

Oriya language on websites is less than 0.1% in terms of percentage.

 

Number of speakers

This language has about 35 million speakers in the world.

 

References

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/oriya.htm

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