Madina was originally known as Yathrib, but later the city's name was changed to Madina al-Nabi ("city of the prophet") or Madinah Tayyibah or Madinatun Nabawi ("the pure city" or "the Prophet’s city"), while the short form Madina simply means "city". Madina is the second sacred city in Islam, after Makkah.
Madinah, which lies 447 kilometers north of the sacred City of Makkah, is the second sacred city in Islam. It was to Madinah that the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and grant Him peace) and his followers, faced by the hostility and persecution of the Makkhan merchants, departed in 622 CE - and, when the citizens of Madinah asked the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) to live amongst them and to arbitrate in their affairs (an invitation taken to mean their rejection of polytheism and submission to the will of the one God i.e., Allah), it was in Madinah that the Islamic era began.
Madinah is then the city of the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace). As the place in which the Qur'an was compiled and from which the Prophet's companions administered the affairs of the Muslim community, it was the seat of the first Islamic state. From Madinah, armies, spreading the word of the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace), were dispatched to Egypt, Persia and Syria. Madinah is also the place in which the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and grant Him peace) was buried. 
Medina is a city in western Saudi Arabia. It lies on a fertile plain about 270 miles north of Makkah.
Before the time of the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace), Madinah was known as Yathrib. Centered on a fertile oasis, Yathrib had some importance as a trading town. In pre-Islamic times Makkah was a place of pilgrimage for those who followed pagan religions and the people of Yathrib would make annual pilgrimages to Makkah where, amongst other deities, they would worship Manat, the goddess of Fate or Destiny and the chief goddess of both cities. The Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj were the main occupants of the oasis in the centuries immediately before the Islamic era.
The Hijra (the Prophet's migration to Madinah) is the date from which the Islamic calendar runs (commonly transliterated Hegira), marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. For a brief period, the city became the administrative capital of the steadily growing Muslim state until, in 661 CE, the seat of Muslim power moved to Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphs. Thereafter Madinah's primary significance has been its position as the second most holy city in the Muslim world. 
Al Masjid al-Nabwi (“Mosque of the Prophet”), the second largest mosque in the world situated in Medina, represents the second sacred site in Islam and the place where the Prophet’s (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) tomb is found. The mosque was built at the Prophet’s (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) orders after his Hijra to Medina and one of the most notable features of the site is the Green Dome (over the centre of the mosque), where the tomb of Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) is located.
The original mosque, that was built adjacent to the Prophet Muhammad’s (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) house, was an open air building and it served as a community centre, a court and a religious school having a raised platform for the people who taught the Quran. The mosque was built with palm trunks and mud walls and was accessed through three doors: Bab Rahmah (Door of Mercy) to the south, Bab Jibril (Door of Gabriel) to the west and Bab al-Nisa' (Door of the Women) to the east. The Prophet (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) made a shady place at the south end of the mosque, named Suffah, where strangers and poor people took shelter. The prayer space faced north towards Jerusalem for sixteen months until the Prophet (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) changed the Qiblah (prayer direction) to face the Kaaba in Makkah.
Narrated by Abu Huraira that Allah's Messenger (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) said, "One prayer in my Mosque is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque excepting Al-Masjid-AI-Haram." Sahih al-Bukhari 1190 (Vol 2:282)
Narrated by Abu Huraira that the Prophet (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) said, "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Messenger, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)." Sahih al-Bukhari 1189 (Vol 2:281) 
There is a brief explanation of some of the places of historical interest in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
This mosque marks the place where Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) offered his first Jum'a prayer on the way to Madinah.
Masjid E Quba'
This is the first mosque in Islam. Its foundation stone was laid by the Prophet (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) himself when he reached Madinah.
“The Messenger of Allah (S) said: ‘Whoever purifies himself in his house, then comes to the Quba’ Mosque and offers one prayer therein, will have a reward like that for ‘Umrah.” Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 1, Book 5, Hadith 1412
In this mosque, the Prophet was instructed by Allah while in prayer to turn from the direction of Jerusalem and turn towards the Kaaba in Makkah. The name of the mosque means "the mosque of two qiblas".
This is the place where the Prophet (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace) performed the Eid salah.The mosque is located close to the Masjid al-Nabwi (the Prophet's Mosque).
Abu Bakr Al Siddiqi Mosque in Madinah
Nearby the Masjid Ghamama are three other mosques worthy of note:
Dua to be read for the Inhabitants of Baqi:
السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ دَارَ قَوْمٍ مُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَتَاكُمْ مَا تُوعَدُونَ غَدًا مُؤَجَّلُونَ وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ بِكُمْ لاَحِقُونَ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لأَهْلِ بَقِيعِ الْغَرْقَدِ "
Meaning: Peace be upon you, abode of a people who are believers. What you were promised would come to you tomorrow, you receiving it after some delay; and God willing we shall join you. O Allah, grant forgiveness to the inhabitants of Baqi' al-Gharqad. Sahih Muslim 974 a (NE2126)
Some people refer Al-Baqi al Gharqad(Graveyard)' as Jannatu Baqi , it is inappropriate because some people are believing that all those who are buried are jannati(will go to paradise), many people are still getting buried in Baqi. So How can we confirm that these people are in Jannah witout any Proof although it is right that the one who is Muslim and Muwahhid if he died In-sha-Allaah he will get intercession (Shafath) of Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and Grant Him peace). “Whoever of you is able to die in Madinah, let him do so, for I will intercede for the one who dies in it,”
كنَّا معَ رسولِ اللَّهِ في بعضِ أسفارِهِ، فقالَ إنَّ جبريلَ عليْهِ السَّلامُ أتاني وإنَّ ربِّي خيَّرني بينَ خَصلتينِ بينَ أن يدخلَ نِصفُ أمَّتيَ الجنَّةَ وبينَ الشَّفاعةِ فاخترتُ الشَّفاعةَ وفيهِ عن مِعقلِ بنِ يسارٍ عنِ النَّبيِّ اثنانِ لا تنالُهما شفاعَتي ومَن ماتَ في المدينةِ كنتُ لَهُ شفيعًا المصدر: تخريج كتاب السنة - الصفحة أو الرقم 829
Dua to be read for any graveyard
‘Peace be upon you all, O inhabitants of the graves, amongst the believers and the Muslims. Verily we will, Allah willing, be united with you, we ask Allah for well-being for us and you.’