Literally, Kaba in Arabic means a high place with respect and prestige. The word kaaba may also be derivative of a word meaning a cube. Some of these other names include:
1. Bait ul Ateeq - which means, according to one meaning, the earliest and ancient. According to the second meaning, it means independent and liberating. Both meanings could be taken.
2. Bait ul Haram - the honorable house. 
Kaba was built at the time of Adam (peace be upon Him) and later on it was re-built in the era of Ibrahim (Abraham) (peace be upon Him) by Ibrahim (peace be upon Him) himself and his son Ismael (peace be upon him)
Black stone is placed by Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and grant Him peace) to one corner of the Kaba. When Makkan people built the Kaba and at the time of placing the black stone they was a conflict, then, an elderly person, Abu Umaiyah bin Mughirah Al Makhzumi, made a proposal that was accepted by all. He said: “Let him, who enter the sanctuary first of all, decide on the point.” The sealed Nectar, p: 63, 64 When the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah honour Him and grant Him peace) entered the sanctuary everyone said in one voice “Al Ameen (The Trust worthy) has come. We are content to abide by his decision”The sealed Nectar, p: 63, 64
The Qibla from Bait-ul-Maqdis changed to Kaba after the revelation of the ayath of Surah Baqarah 2: 144, “Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammads. SAW) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Haram (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Certainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Kabah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.” Qur’an.Surah Baqrah 2: 144. 
Narrated Bara’ bin ‘Azib(R): Allah’s Apostle prayed facing Baitul-Maqdis for sixteen or seventeen months but he loved to face the Ka’ba (at Mecca) so Allah revealed: “Verily, We have seen the turning of your face to the heaven!” (Qur’an.Surah Baqrah 2:144) So the Prophet faced the Ka’ba and the fools amongst the people namely “the Jews” said, “What has turned them from their Qibla (Bait-ul-Maqdis) which they formerly observed”" (Allah revealed): “Say: ‘To Allah belongs the East and the West. He guides whom he will to a straight path’.” (Qur’an.Surah Baqrah 2:142) A man prayed with the Prophet (facing the Ka’ba) and went out. He saw some of the Ansar praying the ‘Asar prayer with their faces towards Bait-ul-Maqdis, he said, “I bear witness that I prayed with Allah’s Apostle facing the Ka’ba.” So all the people turned their faces towards the Ka’ba. Sahih Al Bukhari Vol 1: 392.