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JAMRAT


Jamrat is a Hajj ritual that involves stoning the three pillars that represent the devil (shaytan in Arabic). As part of this Hajj ritual, the pilgrims throw small pebbles at those three structures of Jamrat in the city of Mina. Pilgrims collect these pebbles at Muzadlifah. These pebbles (small stones) can also be collected in the city of Mina, east of Makkah. The process of casting or stoning of seven pebbles to these pillars is called as Rami or Ramee.

 

Table of Contents

 

Historical Significance

Stoning the Jamaraat is one of the obligatory rituals of Hajj and is prescribed for everyone who intends to do this great pilgrimage. This ritual is mentioned clearly in the Sunnah and its authenticity is agreed upon by the scholars. 

 

The historical significance of Jamrat ritual hails from Prophet Ibraheem when the devil appeared to him three times. At each of the appearances, Angel Jibraeel (Gabriel) told Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) to pelt the devil. Thus, the basis of the significance of the ritual.  [1] [2]

 

Hadith

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet seated al-Fadl behind him on his mount, and al-Fadl said that he did not stop reciting the Talbiyah until he stoned the Jamrah. Sahih al-Bukhari 1685 and Sahih Muslim 1282

 

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he came to the largest Jamrah and put the House on his left and Mina on his right and stoned it with seven (pebbles), and he said: This is how the one to whom Soorat al-Baqarah was revealed stoned it. Sahih al-Bukhari 1748 and Sahih Muslim 1296

 

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he would stone al-Jamrah al-Dunya (the Jamrah near the Khaif mosque) with seven pebbles, saying takbeer after every throw. Then he would go ahead until he reached the level ground where he would stand facing the qiblah, and he stood for a long time, offering du’aa’ and raising his hands. Then he would stone the middle pillar, then he would move to the left towards the middle ground, where he would stand facing the qiblah. He would remain there for a long time offering du’aa’ and raising his hands. Then he would stone Jamrat al-‘Aqabah from the middle of the valley, but he did not stand beside it. Then he would leave and say: This is how I saw the Prophet doing it. Sahih al-Bukhari 1751

 

Types of Jamrat or Jamra

The first (minor) pillar called as Jamra e Ulaa (Sughra) is close to the Al-Khaif Mosque, 155 meters from the first pillar is the second (medium) pillar(Jamra e Wusta). The third (major) pillar, another 155 meters on, is known as the pillar of Aqabah (Jamra e Uqbah or Kubra). Pilgrims start the stoning with the minor pillar and then move on to the medium pillar and the major pillar. [3]

 

Scholars view

Ibn al-Mundhir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: They were unanimously agreed that if a person stones the Jamaraat during the days of al-Tashreeq after the sun has passed the meridian, that is valid. AL-IJMAA’ BY IBN AL-MUNDHIR (11)

 

Ibn Hazm (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: They agreed that the three days after the Day of Sacrifice are the days for stoning the Jamaraat, and that the one who stoned them during those days after the meridian, that is valid.  MARAATIB AL-IJMAA’ BY IBN HAZM (46)

 

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: When he reaches Mina, he should start with Jamrat al-‘Aqabah, which is the furthest of the Jamaraat from Mina and the closest of them to Makkah, and it is at al-‘Aqabah, hence it is also called Jamrat al-‘Aqabah. He should stone it with seven pebbles, saying takbeer with each throw. He should stand at the middle of the valley and turn to face the qiblah, then he should leave and should not stay there. This is a summary of the views of those scholars whose views we know. Al-Mughni (3/218) [4]

 

Common mistakes

There are many mistakes committed by some pilgrims when stoning the Jamaraat. 

  1. Some people think that the stoning of the Jamaraat is not valid unless it is done with pebbles from Muzdalifah. Hence you will find them going to a lot of trouble to gather the pebbles from Muzdalifah before they go to Mina. This is a mistaken idea, because the pebbles may be taken from anywhere, from Muzdalifah, from Mina, or from any place. The point is that they should be pebbles.

    There is no report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) picked up the pebbles from Muzdalifah, so that we could say that this is Sunnah. It is not Sunnah, and it is not obligatory to pick up the pebbles from Muzdalifah, because the Sunnah is either the words or actions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or what he approved of – none of which apply in the case of picking up pebbles from Muzdalifah. 
     
  2. Some people, when they pick up the pebbles, wash them, either for fear that someone may have urinated on them, or to clean them, because they think that if they are clean, this is better. Whatever the case, washing the pebbles is an innovation (bid’ah), because the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not do that, and worshipping Allaah by doing something that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not do is a kind of bid’ah. If a person does that without the intention of it being an act of worship then it is foolishness and is a waste of time. 
     
  3. Some people think that these Jamaraat are devils, and that they are actually stoning devils, so you may see them becoming very emotional and very angry, as if the Shaytaan himself is in front of him, and this leads to the following grave errors:

    a) This is a mistaken notion. We stone these Jamaraat as an act of remembering Allaah, following the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as an act of worship. If a person does an act of worship and does not know its benefits, but he does it only as an act of worship for Allaah, this will be more indicative of his humility and submission to Allaah.

    b) A person may become very angry and emotional, so you see him disturbing people greatly, as if the people in front of him are vermin and he doesn’t care about them or the weak among them, he just goes forward like a crazy camel. [5]

 

Obligatory acts in Ramy al-Jamarah

  1. Having the intention of closeness to Allah (Glory be to Him), and it is enough to have the intention in the heart that he/she has the intention of throwing seven pebbles to Jamarah for obeying Allah (Glory be to Him) and performing rituals of Hajj and it is not necessary to say this intention by words.
     
  2. The pilgrim should use seven pebbles (not being very large and not being very small, it is enough that each of them to be in size of a finger nail).
     
  3. Pebbles should be hurled one by one and throwing two pebbles together is considered is throwing only one. [6]

 

See also

Hajj; Umrah; Makkah; Prophet Ibraheem; Prophet Muhammad

 

References

[1] [4] http://islamqa.info/en/125711

[2] http://www.iqrasense.com/hajj/Jamrat-the-hajj-ritual-of-stoning-the-devil-shaytan.html

[3] http://www.hajinformation.com/main/k40.htm

[5] http://islamqa.info/en/34420

[6] http://islamqa.info/en/ref/36436/stoning

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