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GUJARATI


Gujarati language, Indo-Aryan member of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages.[1] Gujarati is the official language of the Indian State of Gujarat as well as one of twenty-two languages officially recognised in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.[2] Gujaratis were at the heart of the campaign for Indian independence, providing two of its chief protagonists: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Mohandas K Gandhi. There is a rich literature in Gujarati from the time of the struggle for independence, but also from much earlier: cultivated continuously since the 12th Century, Gujarati boasts a fine tradition of poetry and, from 1800 onwards, both poetry and prose. [3]

 

Table of Contents

 

History

The Gujarātī script was adapted from the Devanāgarī script to write the Gujarātī language. The earliest known document in the Gujarātī script is a manuscript dating from 1592, and the script first appeared in print in a 1797 advertisement. Until the 19th century it was used mainly for writing letters and keeping accounts, while the Devanāgarī script was used for literature and academic writings. [4]

 

Dialects

Differences in religion, caste, ethnicity, profession, and education overlap with regional distinctions to create a complex system of language varieties in which sharp dialect boundaries cannot be drawn. Linguists have discerned two general pairs of dialect groups, however. The first is based on differing phonology: some groups use a “tight” phonation, spoken with a raised larynx; others use a “murmured” phonation, spoken with the intermittent lowering of the larynx. The second dialect pair is based on ethnicity, as there are recognizable distinctions between speakers who are Parsi and those who are Bohra. [6]

 

Number of speakers

Gujarātī, an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 46 million people in the Indian states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh, and also in Bangladesh, Fiji, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman, Pakistan, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, United Kingdom, USA, Zambia and Zimbabwe. [5]

 

Gujarati language on websites

Gujarati language content available on net is less than 0.1% in terms of percentage.

 

References

[1] [6] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249083/Gujarati-language

[2] [3] http://www.soas.ac.uk/languagecentre/languages/gujarati/

[4] http://www.omniglot.com/writing/gujarati.htm

[5] http://www.omniglot.com/writing/gujarati.htm

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