MAJOR EVENTS DURING PROPHET MUHAMMAD'S ﷺ LIFE
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born in Makkah on Monday, 571 CE – The year of the elephant. His father name was Abdullah Ibn Abdul Muttalib, who died in Makkah before Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born. Prophet's ﷺ lineage up to his fifth ancestor is Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib Ibn Hashim Ibn Abd Manaf Ibn Qusai Ibn Kilab.
Allah says is Qur’an for Prophet as: “And raised high for you your repute. For indeed, with hardship [will be] ease.”Qur’an Surah Sharh 94:4, 5
571 CE: Birth of prophet Muhammad (SAW) on Monday, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
576 CE: Death of Amina, Muhammad's (SAW) mother. He was barely 6 years old then, and became an orphan. His grandfather, `Abdul Muttalib becomes his guardian, who was the chief of his clan Bani Hashim.
578 CE: Death of his grandfather `Abdul Muttalib. His uncle Abu Talib becomes his guardian.
582 CE: Travels to Syria Abu Talib where a Christian monk foretells his Prophethood.
595 CE: At the age of 25, Muhammad (SAW) marries Khadija (RA) who was 40 years old, a noble widow and a wealthy woman, 15 years his senior.
Dissatisfied with the oppression, immorality and idolatry prevalent in the society, Muhammad (SAW) used to go to a cave called Hira on the Jabal-an-Noor (mountain of light) a few miles outside Makkah to meditate.
Muhammad's (SAW) became Prophet during one of the visits to Cave of Hira. The angel Jibra'il (Gabriel) (AS) appears to him and orders him to read. The first aayaath "Read, in the name of thy Lord, who created..." (96:1-5) are revealed.
Beginning of public preaching. Beginning of persecution of Muslims by the powerful leaders of Quraysh. Some Muslims are murdered (Yasir and his wife Summayah), some burnt and beaten on the scorching sands (Bilal, etc.) and some beaten and whipped (`Uthman, Khabbab, `Ammar, etc.). (RA)
Emigration of around 70 Muslims to Abyssinia to escape persecution and to seek refuge under the Christian King Negus.
The Prophet's uncle Hamza (RA) and Umar (RA) the Great convert to Islam, boosting the morale of the Muslims. Seeing the Muslims gaining strength, the Makkan Quraysh sign an edict to begin an economic social boycott of the Muslims and their protecting clans. The latter are secluded in a valley called Shi'b Abi Talib. The Muslims and the protecting clans go through untold pain and suffering.
End of boycott. Deaths of the Prophet's wife, Khadija (RA) and his Uncle, Abu Talib - his two greatest supporters. The Isra' and Mi`raj take place - Muhammad's (SAW) night journey to Jerusalem and then to the Heavens and a meeting with Allah (SWT). Five times prayers (salat) is ordained by Allah (SWT) for all Muslims
Muhammad (SAW) visit to Taif (south of Makkah), but is chased away by street urchins throwing stones at him. Six people from Yathrib (Madina) convert to Islam.
The first Pledge of `Aqabah by a group of 12 Madinite Muslims, promising to obey Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Prophet sends Mus`ab ibn Umayr to Madina to preach Islam.
The second Pledge of `Aqabah by a group of 72 Madinite Muslims, promising to stand by him even with their lives if so required. Mus`ab (RA) report that every household but 4 have converted to Islam. Madinites invite Prophet to Madina.
The HIJRAH, emigration to Madinah by the Prophet (SAW) and his Makkan followers. Having seen to safe exit of his followers, he was among the last to leave Makkah. This marks the start of the Islamic calendar. After his arrival, the Constitution of Madinah is framed, outlining the rights and duties of the Muslims and the Jews within the Islamic State of Madina. The Prophet (SAW) is recognized as the ruler, judge and arbiter of the Islamic State of Madina.
The Battle of Badr between 313 ill-equipped Muslims and 1000 well-equipped Makkan (Quraysh) Kuffar (non believers). The Muslims are victorious. 13 Muslims are martyred and prominent leaders of Quraysh are killed (including Abu Jahl, `Utbah, Shaybah and Walid, leaders of the Quraysh) or captured. Banu Qaynuqa`, one of the Jewish tribes are expelled from Madina for their breach of the Constitution of Madina and a declaration of war on Muslims.
The Battle of Uhud between 700 Muslims and 3000 Makkan Quraysh. Ends in stalement with 72 Muslims martyred. 300 hypocrites desert Muslims. The second Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir, expelled from Madina for their treachery and conspiracies to kill the Prophet (SAW) and rebellion.
The Battle of the Ditch (Khandaq). Madina besieged by 10,000 Makkans and their confederates for a month. A ditch dug by the Muslims prevents the advance of the enemy. Eventually, after some skirmishes, supplies running short, dissension arose in the enemy army ranks and the weather was bad. Seige was lifted. The men of the third Jewish tribe in Madina - Banu Qurayzah are executed according to a judgment of their own law for rebellion against the state of Madina. Their women and children are sold into slavery and move to the oasis of Khyber.
The Treaty of Hudaibiyah signed between the Muslims and Makkans with unfavorable terms towards Muslims. The treaty forced the Muslims to return to Madina without performing `umra (lesser pilgrimage). Other terms of the treaty set peace for 10 years between the Quraysh and the Muslims, and forcing any Qurayshis henceforth who would convert to Islam to be given into the custody of the Quraysh in Makkah. The Jews of the oasis of Khyber prepare to invade Madina. The Muslims attack Khyber and conquer it. The Prophet (SAW) sends emissaries to all neighboring kings and emperors of the Middle East to accept Islam. Khalid bin Walid and `Amr ibn al-`Aas (RA), two of the greatest generals of the Quraysh embrace Islam but are unable to come to Madina because of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. Also, the Persian Governor of Yemen accepts Islam.
As per the treaty of Hudaybiyah, Muslims go to perform `umrah (the lesser pilgrimage).
Allies of the Makkans violate treaty of Hudaibiyah by attacking a clan that is allied to the Muslims. In retaliation, 10,000 Muslims march to Makkah and conquer it without shedding any blood. Abu Sufyan and many other Makkan nobles accept Islam. With the conquest of Makkah, the tribe of Hawazin feel threatened, and start amassing a force to subjugate the Muslims. Two months later, 12,000 Muslims face 30,000 Hawazin at Hunayn. After an initial setback, the Muslims are victorious.
Deputations of tribes from all over Arabia come to pay allegiance to Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Madina. All of Arabia becomes part of the Islamic State.
Hajj delegation led by Abu Bakr (RA). By this time most of the Arabs all over Arabia have accepted Islam.
The Farewell Hajj and the Farewell Address or Last Sermon delivered by the Prophet (SAW) at `Arafat.
The completion of the Qur`an and the Prophet's (SAW) message.