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ENGLISH


English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to Frisian, German, and Dutch languages. English originated in England and is now widely spoken on six continents. It is the primary language of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and various small island nations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It is also an official language of India, the Philippines, Singapore, and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. English is the first choice of foreign language in most other countries of the world, and it is this status that has given it the position of a global lingua franca. It is estimated that a third of the world’s population, some two billion persons, now use English.

 

Modern English is analytic (i.e., relatively uninflected), whereas Proto-Indo-European, the ancestral tongue of most of the modern European languages (e.g., German, French, Russian, Greek), was synthetic, or inflected. During the course of thousands of years, English words have been slowly simplified from the inflected variable forms found in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Russian, and German, toward invariable forms, as in Chinese and Vietnamese.

 

It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

 

Table of Contents

 

History

Following British colonization from the 16th to 19th centuries, it became the dominant language in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

 

English replaced German as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half of the 20th century. English equalled and may have surpassed French as the dominant language of diplomacy during the last half of the 19th century.

 

Old Englishwas a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Great Britain. During 8th-11th century.

 

The Norman invasion produced what is now referred to as Middle English.

 

Modern English, is generally dated from about 1550, when the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English was adopted in North America, India, Africa, Australia and many other regions, a trend extended with the emergence of the United States as a superpower in the mid-20th century.

 

Geographical distribution

1. Approximately 375 million people speak English as their first language.

2. 3rd as native speakers after Mandarin Chineseand Spanish

3. Combining native and non-native speakers stands second compared to Chinese language               

 

Official Status

a) Organizations

By international treaty, the official language for aeronautical and maritime  communications, the International Olympic Committee, United Nations, Commonwealth of Nationsand the Commonwealth Games.

 

b) Countries

PRIMARY  LANGAUGE

English is the primary language in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda,  the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, Canada, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Guyana, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jersey, Montserrat, Nauru, New Zealand, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, the Turks and Caicos Islands.

 

OFFICIAL BUT NOT  LEGISLATED:  United States, Australia, United Kingdom.

Countries where English is not the most spoken language but official language as a result of THE BRITISH COLONY: Botswana, Cameroon, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines(Philippine English), Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Also there are countries where in a part of the territory English became a co-official language, e.g. Colombia's San Andrés y Providenciaand Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast.

 

Number of speakers

It is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world (approximately 1.5 billion speakers), the mother tongue of more than 350 million people, and the most widely taught foreign language.

 

English language on websites

English language on websites ranks on 1st on its content available on net and it is 54.8% in terms of percentage.

 

Top Ten English Speaking Countries in World

 

 

 

   Rank

Country

% English Speakers

Total English Speakers

1

United States

95.81%

251,388,301

2

India

11.38%

125,226,449

3

Philippines

92.58%

89,800,000

4

Nigeria

53.34%

79,000,000

5

United Kingdom

97.74%

59,600,000

6

Germany

56%

46,272,504

7

Canada

85.18%

25,246,220

8

France

36%

23,000,000

9

Australia

97.03%

17,357,833

10

Italy

29%

17,000,000

 

References

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/188048/English-language

http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-top-ten/countries-with-most-english-language-speaker-map.html#sthash.izUM7iPf.dpuf

 

 

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