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ABEL AND CAIN


Islamic name of Abel is Habil and cain is Qabil. Habil and Qabil were the first children from the lineage of Adam عليه السلامand Hawwa (Eve) عليه السلام, who were the first pair on the face of the earth.  They witnessed the birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam  عليه السلامwas a devoted father and Hawwa (Eve) عليه السلامa contented mother. The twins were Qabil and his sister. Later Hawwaعليه السلامgave birth to a second set of twins, Habil and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Qabil tilled the land while Habil raised cattle. [1]

 

Table of Contents

 

Qur’an

And recite to them the story of Adam's two sons [Habil and Qabil], in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice [to Allah ], and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said [the latter], "I will surely kill you." Said [the former], "Indeed, Allah only accepts from the righteous [who fear Him]. If you should raise your hand against me to kill me - I shall not raise my hand against you to kill you. Indeed, I fear Allah , Lord of the worlds. Indeed I want you to obtain [thereby] my sin and your sin so you will be among the companions of the Fire. And that is the recompense of wrongdoers." And his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the losers. Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother. He said, "O woe to me! Have I failed to be like this crow and hide the body of my brother?" And he became of the regretful. Quran Surah Maidah 5:27-31 [2]

 

Tafseer ibn Katheer on the story of Habil and Qabil

Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir mentioned that Adamعليه السلامwas present there when they offered their sacrifices. After Abel's sacrifice was accepted, Cain said to his father, Adam: "It was accepted only from him because you invoked Allah for his sake." And, he secretly intended something against his brother. One day, Abel was late and Adam sent Cain to look for him. The two brothers met and Cain said: "Your sacrifice was accepted and mine was not." Abel said: "{Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}." Cain got angry and hit his brother with an iron rod and Abel fell dead at once.

 

It was said: Cain killed Abel by throwing a rock at his head while he was asleep. It was also said: Cain choked Abel violently and bit him to death as beasts do. However, Abel's saying when Cain threatened to kill him: {If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you: for I fear Allah, the Lord of the" Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists)} Qur’an Surah Ma'idah, 28) indicated his good morals and ethics, his fear from Allah, and perfect piety that he may harm his brother, in contrast with the odious deed intended by his brother, Cain. For this, Abu Bakrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: "'When two Muslims confront each other and the one amongst them attacks his brother with a weapon, both of them get into Hell-Fire.' He (Ahnaf, one of the sub-narrators) said: 'I said, or it was said: Messenger of Allah! It may be the case of one who kills, but what about the slain (why he would be put in Hell-Fire)?' Thereupon, he (Peace be upon him) said: 'He also intended to kill his companion. "

 

Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin (on yourself) as well as yours, then you will be one of the denizens of the Fire; and that is the recompense of the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)}.  Qur’an suarh Ma'idah, 29 i.e. I do not intend to fight against you though I am myself far stronger and tougher than you are, but you will {draw my sin on yourself as well as yours}, i.e. you will bear the sin of murdering me along with your previous sins

 

On the authority of Sa'd Ibn Abu Waqqas his statement upon the ordeal of `Uthman Ibn `Affan that reads: I testify that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: "There will be soon a period of turmoil in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than one who walks and the one who walks will be better than one who runs." Someone said: 'Allah's Messenger! What is your opinion if someone entered my home and stretched his hand to kill me?' Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: 'Be just like the son of Adam (Abel). "Narrated by Ibn Mardwiyah after Hudhaifah Ibn Al- Yaman in another wording as saying: "Be just like the best of Adam's two sons." Classed as sahih by sheikh Albani in Sunan Abi Dawud 4257 

 

Imam Ahmed transmitted after Mu`awiyah and Waki` their saying: We were told by Al- A ` mash on the authority of `Abdullah Ibn Murrah after Masruq after `Abdullah Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) as saying: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, "None (no human being) is killed or murdered (unjustly), but a part of responsibility for the crime is laid on the first son of Adam who invented the tradition of killing (murdering on earth). " (Ahmed's Musnad) [3]

 

Qabil‘s Jealousy of Habil

Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Habil offered his best camel while Qabil offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah. This enraged Qabil. He said to his brother: “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”

 

The First Murder on Earth

“So the self  (base desires) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers.” Quran Suarh Maidah 5:30

 

Prophet Muhammad(S) informed us that Cain became angry and hit his brother over the head with a piece of iron.  It was also said in another narration that Cain hit Abel over the head while he was sleeping.

 

“God sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother.  He (the murderer) said: ‘Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?’  Then he became one of those who regretted.” Quran Suarh Maidah 5:31

 

Adam عليه السلامwas devastated; he had lost both his first and second born sons.  One had been murdered; the other was won over by mankind’s greatest enemy – Satan.  Patiently, Adam عليه السلامprayed for his son, and continued to care for the earth.  He taught his many children and grandchildren about God.  He told them of his own encounter with Satan and advised them to beware of Satan’s tricks and schemes.  Years and years passed, and  Adam عليه السلامgrew old and his children spread out across the earth.

 

Narrated `Abdullah(R):Allah's Messenger () said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." Sahih al-Bukhari 3335 (Vol. 4: 552) and 6867 (Vol. 9:6)[4]

 

Scholars view

It was narrated concerning them, as quoted by more than one of the earlier and later scholars, that Allah prescribed that Adam (peace be upon him) should marry his daughters to his sons as a matter of necessity. But they said: A male and female were born from each pregnancy, so he would marry the female from one pregnancy to the male from another. The sister of Habil was ugly and the sister of Qabil was beautiful. Qabil wanted to keep her for himself and not give her to his brother, but Adam insisted that they should offer sacrifices and whichever brother’s sacrifice was accepted by Allah would win her hand. So they offered sacrifices and it was accepted from Habil but it was not accepted from Qabil. And their story was told by Allah in His Book. Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/82 

 

Ibn Abi Haatim narrated: It was forbidden for a woman to marry her twin brother, and he was commanded to give her in marriage to a brother from another pregnancy. And from each pregnancy one boy and one girl were born. Whilst they were like that, a beautiful girl was born to him, and another was born who was ugly. The twin brother of the ugly one said to his brother: Give me your twin sister in marriage and I will give you my twin sister in marriage. He said: I have more right to my twin sister. So they offered sacrifices, and the sacrifice of the one who offered a ram was accepted but the sacrifice of the one who offered crops was not accepted, so he killed him. Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Its isnaad is jayyid. Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/83, Tafseer Ibn Jeeri, 10/206; Tafseer al-Baghawi, 3/41; Tafseer al-Tha‘labi, p. 732; al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’aan, 6/134; Zaad al-Maseer, 2/332; al-Bidaayah wa’l-Nihaayah, 1/103 

 

See also

Abel or Habil; Adam; Eve; Cain or Qabil;

 

References

[1] http://islamstepbystep.wordpress.com/al-quran-2/al-quran-stories-prophets/habeel-and-qabeel/

[2] http://www.islambasics.com/view.php?bkID=80&chapter=4

[3]http://d1.islamhouse.com/data/en/ih_books/single/en_stories_of_the_quran.pdf[

[4] http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/1190/viewall/

[5] http://islamqa.info/en/154309

 

 

 

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